NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science.Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 4 Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age
Fill in the blanks:
(a) The British described the tribal people as savage/uncivilized
(b) The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is known as scattering
(c) The tribal chiefs got land titles in central India under the British land settlements.
(d) Tribals went to work in the tea plantations of Assam and the coalmines in Bihar.
State whether True or False:
(a) Jhum cultivators plough the land and sow seeds. False
(b) Cocoons were bought from the Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price. True
(c) Birsa urged his followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery True
(d) The British wanted to preserve the tribal way of life.False
What problems did shifting cultivators face under British rule?
Problems Faced by Shifting Cultivators under British Rule
- Due to changes in Forest laws, under the British, life of shifting cultivators was badly affected. They were not allowed in “Reserved Forests” and practice shifting cultivation. As a result they had to move to other areas.
- Other problems were scarcity of water, dry soil, poor yields and lack of resources, produce.
How did the powers of tribal chiefs change under colonial rule?
Change in the Powers of the Tribal Chiefs under Colonial Rule
1. Before the arrival of the British in India tribal chiefs were important people.
2. They had economic power.
3. They had the right to administer and control their territories.
4. In some areas they had their own policy.
5. They decided on the local rules of land and forest management. The British changed their functions and powers considerably.
- They were allowed to keep their land titles over a cluster of villages and rent out lands.
- They were divested of their administrative power.
- They were forced to follow laws made by the British in India.
- They also had to pay tribute to the British, and discipline the tribal groups
on behalf of the British.
- They lost the authority they had earlier enjoyed amongst their people.
- Now they were unable to fulfill their traditional functions.
What accounts for the anger of the tribals against the dikus?
1. Tribal groups often needed to buy and sell to be able to get the goods that were not produced within the locality. Hence they depended on traders and moneylenders.
- Traders came around with things for sale, and sold the goods at high prices.
- Moneylenders gave loans. The interest charged on the loans was very high.
2. Market and commerce often meant debt and poverty to the tribal people. Hence they took the moneylender and trader as evil outsiders and the cause of their misery.
What was Birsa’s vision of a golden age? Why do you think such a vision appealed to the people of the region?
Birsa’s Vision of Golden Age
- Birsa was deeply influenced by many of the ideas he came in touch with.
- His movement was aimed at reforming tribal society.
- He urged the Mundas to give up drinking liquor, clean their villages, and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.
- Birsa also turned against missionaries and Hindu landlords as he saw them as outside forces that were ruining the Munda way of life.
- In 1895 Birsa urged Just followers to recover their glorious past.
- He talked of a golden age in the past a satyug (the age of truth)—when Mundas lived a good life,
- They constructed embankments.
- They tapped natural springs.
- They planted trees and orchards.
- They practised cultivation to earn their living.
- They did not kill their brethren and relatives.
- They lived honestly.
- Birsa also wanted people to once again work on their land, settle down and cultivate their fields.
- The political aim of the Birsa movement made the British worried.
- He also wanted the government to set up a Munda Raj with Birsa at its head.
- The movement identified all these forces as the cause of the misery and suffering.
Find out from your parents, friends or teachers, the names of some heroes of other tribal revolts in the twentieth century. Write their story in your own words.
It is ah activity consult library and write story of other tribal leaders.
Name of some tribal heroes
Choose any tribal group living in India today. Find out about their customs and way of life, and how their lives have changed in the last 50 years.
A tribal group of Jharkhand. Now collect information from library of your school or internet and write their ways of life and changes that occurred during the last 50 years.
Objective type questions
2. State whether True or False:
(1) Birsa himself declared that God had appointed him to rule his people,True
(2) The British described the tribal people as False
(3) Birsa was born in a family of Santhal.False
(4) Bakkarwalas of Kashmir are shepherds False
(5) Birsa was arrested in 1895.True
(6) Birsa, died in 1900. True
3. Fill in the blanks:
(1) Birsa wanted to set up a Munda Raj
(2) The British made effort to settle Jhum cultivators.
(3) All members of the Clan were regarded as descendants of the original settler.
(4) Cocoons were bought from the Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price.
Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
1. The local weavers and leather workers turned to ……. for supplies of Kusum and Palash flowers.
2. The Bastar Rebellion in Central India broke out in
3. Which revolt was popukir in Maharashtra in 1940?
(a) The Cols
(b) The Bastar
(c) The Warli
(d) Birsa movement
4. The Khonds lived in
(b) Madhva Pradesh
5. What type of lives did the herders live?
(d) None of these
6. ….. tribe practised settled agriculture.
(c) Labadis of Andhra Pradesh
(d) Mundas of Chottanagpur Plateau
7. Jhum cultivation is practised these days in
(a) eastern states of India
(b) western states of India
(c) northern states of India
(d) southern states of India
8. Santhals tribe rose in revolt in the year
9. In many regions Forest Department set up forest villages to ensure
(a) a regular supply of cheap labour
(b) a regular supply of forest produce
(c) a regular supply of agricultural produce
(d) none of the above
10. The revoit of Songram Sangma rose in the year 1906 in
(b) Madhya Pradesh
11. The forest Satvagraha rose in the central provinces in
12. Birsa spent time in the company of …….. preachers.
(d) None of these
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