NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 8 Civilising the “Native”, Educating the Nation
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science.Here we have given. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 8 Civilising the “Native”, Educating the Nation
State whether True or False:
(a) James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists. True
(b) The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India. True
(c)Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education. False
(d)Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline. False
Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law?
- William Jones came to represent a particular attitude towards India. He shared a deep respect for ancient cultures, both of India and of the West.
- Jones and Colebrooke felt that India had attained its glory in the ancient past. It declined later on. In order to understand India, it was necessary to discover the sacred and legal texts produced in the past.
- These texts would reveal the ideas and laws of Hindus and Muslims and would form the basis of future development.
- Jones and Colebrooke believed that their project would help the British learn from Indian culture. Indians would also rediscover their own heritage. In this way the British would become guardian and masters of Indian culture.
Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?
- James Mill was the strongest critic of the Orientalists.
- He declared that the British should not teach what the natives wanted, or what they respected, in order to please them and “win a place in their heart”.
- The £pm of education should be to teach what was useful and practical.
- Indians should be made familiar with the scientific and technical advances that the West had made, and not the sacred literature of the Orient.
- Macaulay urged the British government in India to stop wasting public money in promoting Oriental learning, for it had no practical use.
- He felt that knowledge of English would allow Indians to read some of the finest literature the world had produced; it would make them aware of the developments in Western science and philosophy.
- Teaching of English could thus be a way of civilising people, changing their tastes, values and culture.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?
Mahatma Gandhi wanted to teach children handicraft because of the following reasons:
- People would work with their hands.
- Craft would develop their minds.
- It would also develop their capacities to understand.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education had enslaved Indians?
- According to Mahatma Gandhi colonial education created a sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians. He said it made them see Western civilisation as superior which destroyed the pride they had in their own culture.
He said: It was sinful—it enslaved Indians—it cast an evil spell on them.
- Charmed by the West, appreciating everything that came from the West, Indians educated in these institutions admired British rule.
- Mahatma Gandhi wanted an education that could help Indians recover their sense of dignity and self-respect.
- Mahatma Gandhi -strongly was in favour of Indian languages to be the medium of teaching.
- Education in English crippled Indians and distanced them from their own social surroundings. This made them “straneers in their own lands”. Speaking a foreign tongue (language) despised local culture.
- Mahatma Gandhi further said that western education focused on reading and writing rather than oral knowledge;
- It valued textbooks rather than life experience and practical knowledge.
- He said education should develop a person’s mind and soul.
- Literacy or simply learning to read and write—by itself did not count as education.
- People had to work with their hands and learn a craft. They should know how different things operated.
Find out from your grandparents about what they studied in school.
- Urdu/Hindi language
- Social study, Drawing.
Find out about the history of your school or any other school in the area you live.
History of our school
- Established as middle school — Organised in tents.
- No furniture.
- Supplied furniture by Government.
- Rooms got constructed.
- Raised to secondary then to senior school.
- After 10 years Pucca building got constructed.
- All the amenities provided.
- Now a full-fledged and flourishing Sarvodaya Bal Vidyalaya upto 12th standard.
Objectives Type Questions
2. State whether True or False:
(1) Mahatma Gandhi was the promotor of English language.False
(2) William Jones had a respect for ancient cultures. True
(3) Thomas Macaulay thought that European education was necessary in India. True
(4) William Carey had an appointment as a Supreme Court Judge.False
(5) Hindu College was set up at Banaras to encourage the study of ancient Hindi texts, False
(6) William Adam was a Scottish missionary True
3. Fill in the blanks:
(1) Mahatma Gandhi favoured Indian languages as a medium of instruction.
(2) Williani Jones had respect for Indian ancient cultures.
(3) Charles Wood emphasised the practical benefits of a system of European
(4) Rabindra Nath Tagore started the Santiniketan in 1901.
(5) According to Adam’s report there were over 1 lakh Pathshalas in Bengal and Bihar.
Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
1. William Jones was a linguist because
(a) he had studied Greek and Latin
(b) he knew French and English
(c) he had learnt Persian
(d) all of these
2. Who set up Asiatic Society of Bengal?
(a) William Jones
(b) Henry Thomas Colebrooke
(c) Nathaniel Halhed
(d) All of these
3. Madrasa was set up in, Calcutta in the year
4. According to whom, “English education had enslaved Indians”?
(a) Rabindranath Tagore
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Subhas Chandra Bose
(d) Aacharya Vinoba Bhave
5. The Education Act was introduced in the year
6. Asiatick Researches (Journal) was NOT started by
(a) Henry Thomas Colebrooke
(b) Henry Thomas
(c) Nathaniel Halhed
(d) William Carey
7. Study of which of the following was NOT the purpose of setting up Madrasa in Calcutta in 1781?
(d) Islamic laws
8. Who was Charles Wood?
(а) The President of the Board of Control of the Company
(b) Commissioner of the Board of Control of the Company
(c) An Educationist
(d) None of the above
9. The English Education Act was passed
(a) to materialise Macaulay’s thinking
(b) to make the English the medium of instruction for higher education
(c) to stop the promotion of oriental institutions
(d) all of the above
10. What type of school did Tagore want to set up?
(a) Where the child was happy
(b) Where he/she could be free and creative
(c) He/she was able to explore her own thoughts and desire
(d) All of the above
11. Who said these “Education means all round drawing out of the best in child and man- body, mind and spirit”?
(a) Rabindranath Tagore
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(d) None of these
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