NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science.Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 3 Ruling the Countryside
Match the following:
Fill in the blanks:
(a) Growers of woad in Europe saw Indigo as a crop which would provide
competition to their earnings.
(b) The demand for indigo increased in late eighteenth century Britain because of industrialisation
(c) The international demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of synthetic dyes
(d) The Champaran movement was against indigo planters
Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.
Main features of the permanent settlements:
- Permanent Settlement benefited landlords more than the government. The Zamindars and revenue collectors were converted into numerous landlords.
- They were not only to act as agents of the Government in collecting land revenue from the ryot but also to become the owners of the entire land in their Zamindaris.
- Their right of ownership was made hereditary and transferable. On the other hand, the cultivators, were reduced to the low status of mere tenants and were deprived of long-standing rights to the soil and other customary rights.
- The Zamindars were to give 10/11th of the rental they derived from the peasantry to the state, keeping only 1/11th for themselves.
- If the rental of a Zamindar’s estate increased he would keep the entire amount of the increase. The state would not make any further demand upon him. At the same time, the Zamindar had to pay his revenue rigidly on the due date even if the crop had failed for some reason; otherwise his lands were to be sold.
How was the Mahalwari system different from the Permanent Settlement?
Difference between Mahalwari System and Permanent Settlement:
- IJnder permanent settlement the revenue rate was fixed Permanently, not to be inpreased. But in Mahalwari System, it was decided that the rate of revenue would be revised periodically.
- Zamindars collected the revenue from peasants in Permanent Settlement and gave a fixed part to the company. In Mahalwari this work was done by village headmen.
Give two problems which arose with the New Munro System of Fixing Revenue.
Problems caused by New Munro System of fixing Revenue:
- Within a few years after the Munro system was imposed, it was felt that all was not well with them.
- The revenue officials fixed too high a revenue demand.
- Peasants were not able to pay.
- Ryots fled the countryside.
- Villages became deserted in many regions.
- It was felt that the new systems would transform the peasants into rich farmers, but it failed to happen.
Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?
Reluctance of Ryots to grow Indigo:
- The planters generally forced the ryots to sign a contract.
- Cash advances were given at low interest rates but that loan committed the ryots to cultivate at least 25% of holding with indigo.
- The planter provided seed, drill, etc. and actual cultivation was done by the cultivator.
- After the delivery of harvest crop to the planter, new loan was given to the ryot.
- This way the ryot \yas trapped in a cycle of loan. They realised that they wereactually getting low rate for their hard labour.
- Planters forced the ryots to grow indigo on best soils. Whereas the cultivators wanted to use that for rice.
What were the circumstances which led to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?
Circumstances leading to Eventual Collapse of Indigo production in Bengal:
1. In March 1859, Ryots in Bengal refused to grow indigo and also refused to pay rents to the planters.
2. Local zamindars and village headmen began to favour them and attacked factories and the gomasthas.
3. British government was worried about another revolt after 1857 so the Lieutenant Governor toured the region.
4. This along with magistrate Ashley Eden’s notice, that ryots could not be compelled to grow indigo, was seen as sympathy.
5. Government brought in military and set up Indigo Commission to inquire into the system of indigo production.
6. The commission held the planters guilty of coercive methods.
7. It declared indigo production was not profitable for ryots.
8. It asked ryots to fulfill present contracts and that they can refuse future production.
9. After this revolt indigo production in Bengal collapsed.
Find out more about the Champaran movement and Mahatma Gandhi’s role in it.
Hints: Hiscuss the following points:
- Oppressive attitude of British Government.
- Rebellion of the Ryot peasants.
- Gandhiji’s role in it.
Look into the history of either tea or coffee plantations in India. See how the life of workers in these plantations was similar to or different from that of workers in indigo plantations.
Hints: Life in Tea Plantations of Assam:
- Estate owners
(a) Wages (b) Habitation (c) Facilities
Life in the Indigo Fields
- Cultivator or Zamindars were the owners.
- Generally, cultivators worked in fields themselves.
Objective Type Questions
1. Match the following:
2. State whether True or False:
(1) The demand for indigo increased in late seventeenth century. False
(2) Revenues were fixed in the permanent settlement. True
(3) The company purchased goods in India before 1865 through gold and silver imports. True
(4) Mahalwari system came into existence in 1700. False
(5) Very high rate of revenue was the major problem of ryotwari system. True
(6) Weekly markets were very flourishing during economic crisis of Bengal. False
(7) The company introduced the Permanent Settlement in 1793. True
3. Fill in the blanks:
(1) Gomasthas were the agents of planters
(2) The Mughal emperor appointed the East India Company as the Diwan of Bengal.
(3) The painter was commissioned by Clive to record memorable events of his life.
(4) Ryotwari system was also known as Munro System
(5) Ryoti is cultivation on Ryot’s lands.
(6) Bigha is the unit of land measurement by the British in Bengal.
Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
1. The Champaran movement was against
(b) East India Company
(c) the oppressive attitude of the planters
(d) none of the above
2. The Company was appointed as the Diwan of Bengal in
3. Gandhiji visited Champaran
(a) to see the plight of Indigo planters in Champaran
(b) to see the progress of’Indigo plantation
(c) to see the managing system of company
(d) none of the above
4. Who devised the new-system of revenue called Mahalwari?
(a) Queen Elizabeth
(b) Holt Mackenzie
(c) Queen Victoria
5. Growers of woad in Europe saw ……. crop as competition to their earnings.
6. Indigo production came down in Bengal in
7. Who had developed the Munro system?
(a) Capiain Alexander
(b) Holt Mackenzie
(c) Thomas Munro
(d) None of these
8. How much proportion of Indigo was imported from India by Britain in 1810?
9. Colebrook describes the conditions of the under-tenant farmers in
10. After harvest, the indigo plant was taken to the …….. in the indigo factory.
11. The international demand of indigo was affected by the discovery of
(a) synthetic dyes
(c) blue colour
(d) none of these
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