NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science.Here we have given. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?
Chintz (chhint), Cossaes (Khassa) and Bandanna. Bandanna word was derived from the word bandhan . It referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth, produced through a method of tying and dying.
What is jamdani?
Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the looms, typically in grey and white colours. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread was used. Important centres were Dacca in Bengal and Lucknow in United Provinces (now in yttar Pradesh).
What is bandanna?
Bandanna is a brightly coloured and printed scarf for neck and head. This word was derived from the word bandhan . It referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth, produced through a method of tying and dying.
Who are the Agaria?
Agaria: Women and men who carried basket loads of iron ore on their heads were called Agarias in Chhattisgarh.
Fill in the blanks:
(a) The word chintz comes from the word Chhint (Hindi word)
(b) Tipu’s sword was made of Wootz steel.
(c) India’s textile exports declined in the 19th century.
How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?
- European traders first saw fine cotton cloth from India in Mosul in present-day Iraq. They referred to all finely woven textiles as “muslin”.
- Portuguese first came to India in search of spices and landed in Calicut on the Kerala coast in south-west India. They took back cotton textiles to Europe, along with the spices. They named it “Calico”. Subsequently Calico became the general name for all cotton textiles.
- Many other words, point to the popularity of Indian textiles in Western markets.
- The pieces included printed cotton cloths called Chintz, (?5fe), Cossaes (or Khassa) and
- Bandanna is a brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. This term was derived from the word “Bandanna” (Hindi for tying).
- Other cloths were known by their place of origin: Kasimbazar, Patna, Calcutta, Orissa and Charpoore.
- The widespread use of such words shows how popular Indian textiles had become in different parts of the world.
Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century ?
Due to the popularity of Indian woollen and silk textiles in England.
- Their textile industry had just developed and they found themselves unable to compete with Indian goods.
- They protested against the import to protect their market by the early 18th century.
How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?
Cotton industries in Britain developed and adversely affected textile producers in India in several ways:
1. Indian textiles faced competition from British textiles in the European and American markets.
2. Export of textiles to England became more and more difficult because the British Govt, imposed very high duties on Indian textiles.
3. In the beginning of the 19th century, cotton textiles made in Britain successfully ousted Indian goods from their traditional markets in Africa, America and Europe.
4. Thousands of weavers in India were now thrown out of employment.
- Bengal weavers were the worst hit.
- English and European companies stopped to buy Indian goods. Their agents no longer gave out advances to weavers to secure supplies.
- Distressed weavers wrote petitions to the government to help them.
5. By the 1830s British cotton cloth flooded Indian markets. Actually by the 1880s 67% of all the cotton clothes worn by Indians were made of cloth produced in Britain. This affected not only specialist weavers but also spinners.
6. Thousands of rural spinner women were rendered jobless.
Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?
The forest laws prevented entry into reserved forests and made it difficult for smelters to find wood for charcoal and iron ore.
- They often entered the forests secretly to collect wood. But they could not sustain their occupation for long.
- In areas where access was given, they had to pay high tax to forest department for every furnace used, which reduced their income.
- The Wootz steel making process was widely known in south india. But it was completely lost by the mid-nineteenth century. The swords and armour making industry died with the conquest of India by the British.
- And imports of iron and steel from England displaced the iron and steel produced by smelting in furnaces.
- Iron smiths in India began using imported iron to manufacture utensils and implements, this further lowered demand of local steel.
What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?
During the early period of its development, the textile industry in India faced many problems.
- In most countries, governments supported local manufacturers by imposing heavy duties on imports. This finished competition and protected their infant industries.
- English producers wanted a secure market within the country by preventing the entry of Indian textiles. British government enacted Calico Act.
- The colonial government in India usually refused such protection to local industries.
What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?
- TISCO (Tata Iron & Steel Company) was set up at a good time.
- During the late nineteenth century, India imported steel from Britain.
- Expansion of the Railways in India provided a huge market for rails that Britain produced.
- British experts in the Indian Railways did not believe that good quality steel could be produced in India.
- But by the time TISCO was set up the situation changed. In 1914 the First World War broke out. Steel produced in Britain now had to meet the demands of war in Europe. So imports of British steel into India declined dramatically and the Indian Railways turned to TISCO for supply of rails.
- TISCO had to produce shells and carriage wheels for the war. By 1919 the colonial government was buying 90 per cent of the steel manufactured by TISCO. Over time TISCO became the biggest steel industry within the British empire.
Find out about the history of any craft around the area you live. You may wish to know about the community of craftsmen, the changes in the techniques they use and the markets they supply. How have these changed in the past 50 years?
History of Handloom weaving:
- Spinning of thread
- Weaving by Julahas in village
- Sale of the fabric in the local market
- Looms were set up
- Fabric woven for local, national and international markets
- International markets.
Changes in Past 50 years
- Constitution of All India Handloom board in 1952.
- Government support for supply of yam, dyes chemicals etc.
- Encouragement by giving awards.
- Insurance cover against calamitites etc.
On a map of India, locate the centers of different crafts today. Find out when these centers came up.
Objective Type Questions
2. State whether True or False:
(1) The Wootz steel making process was widely known in north India. False
(2) The importance of Surat declined in the eighteenth century. True
(3) Charkha was put at the center of the tricolour flag of the Indian National Congress adopted in 1931. True
(4) Tipu Sultan fought seven wars with British. False
(5) Tipu Sultan ruled Mysore till 1812. False
(6) During British rule Sugar industry was focussed. False
3. Fill in the blanks:
(1) In the mid-nineteenth century Patola was highly valued in Indonesia
(2) TISCO became the biggest steel industry within the British rule.
(3) The first cotton mill in India was set up in 1854
(4) Khadi slowly became a symbol of nationalism.
(5) Michael Faraday was the discoverer of electricity and electromagnetism.
Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
1……… cloth had a large market in Europe.
(d) None of these
2. Women and men who carried basket loads of iron ore on their heads were called
3. In which century did the India’s textile industry decline?
(a) 17th century
(b) 18th century
(c) 19th century
(d) 20th century
4. TISCO expanded steel production during the
(a) First World War
(b)Second World War
(c) Third World War
(d) None of these
5. Portuguese first came to India in search of
6. What things did Portuguese take back to Europe?
(c) Cotton textile
7. Tipu Sultan’s sword was made of
(a) stainless steel
(d) none of these
8. Which of the following was NOT the name of Indian textile ?
9. Michael Faraday spent four years in studying
(a) the property of Indian steel
(b) the ancient Indian culture
(c) the properties of Indian Wootz
(d) none of these
10. Which place in India had one of the finest ores in the world?
(c) Rajhara Hills
(d) None of these
11. Spinning Jenny was invented by
(b) John Kaye
(d) none of these
We hope the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners, help you. If you have any query regarding . NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.