NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 9 Women, Caste and Reform
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science.Here we have given. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 9 Women, Caste and Reform
What social ideas did the following people support.
- Rammohan Roy — emancipation of women, anti sati act 1829.
- Dayanand Saraswati — against idol worship, widow remarriage, girl education.
- Veerasalingam Pantulu — widow remarriage.
- Jyotirao Phule — against caste distinctions, girl education.
- Pandita Ramabai — economic independence of women, widow homes.
- Periyar — self respect movement.
- Mumtaz Ali — reinterpretation of Quran for women education.
- Iswarchandra Vidyasagar — women education, widow remarriage act 1856.
State whether True or False:
(a) When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance of property, etc. True
(b) Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices. False
(c) Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country. False
(d) The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in 1829. False
How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws?
- The reformers used ancient texts to convince people that social evils like caste distinctions, child marriage, sati, etc. had no sanction in ancient texts.
- The knowledge of these texts gave reformers a sense of confidence and moral support to promote new laws.
What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school?
Vidyasagar in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and many other reformers in Bombay . (now Mumbai) set up schools for girls.
- When the first schools were opened in the mid-nineteenth century, many people were afraid of them.
- They feared that schools would take girls away from home.
- They would prevent them from doing their domestic duties.
- Girls had to travel through public places in order to reach school. This would have a corrupting influence on them.
- GMs should stay away from public spaces.
Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?
Christian Missionaries were attacked in the country by many people because they suspected that they were involved in forced conversion and conversion using money power of poor and tribal people from Hinduism to Christianity.
- If some people supported them, that was because they felt this might improve the economical condition and education of poor and tribals.
In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes that were regarded as “low”?
During the British period several new opportunities were opened up for the people who came from castes that were regarded as low. The following account reveals this:
- The poor began leaving their villages to look for jobs that were opening up in the cities. There was work in the factories and jobs in municipalities.
- Drains had to be dug, roads laid, buildings constructed, and cities cleaned. This needed coolies, diggers, carriers, bricklayers, sewage cleaners, sweepers, palanquin bearers, rickshaw pullers.
- Some of them also went to work in plantations in Assam, Mauritius, Trinidad and Indonesia.
- The poor, and the people from low castes, saw this as an opportunity to get away from the oppressive hold of the upper-caste landowners.
- There were other jobs too. The army, for instance, offered opportunities.
- Numerous Mahar people, who were regarded as untouchable, found jobs in the Mahar Regiment.
- The father of B.R. Ambedkar, the leader of the Dalit movement, taught at an army school.
How did Jyotirao the reformer justify their criticism of caste inequality in society ?
Jyotirao Phule, born in 1827, was the most vocal amongst the “Low-caste” leaders.
- He attacked the Brahmans’ claim of their superiority to others. He argued the Aryans were foreigners, who came from outside the subcontinent.
- They defeated and subjugated the true children of the country and looked at the defeated population as inferior.
- According to Phule, the “upper” castes had no right to their land and power. In reality, the land belonged to the so-called low castes.
- Phule opined that there existed a golden age when warrior-peasants tilled the land and ruled the Maratha countryside in just and fair ways.
- He proposed that the Shudras (labouring castes) and Ati Shudras (untouchables) should unite to challenge caste discrimination.
- The Satyashodhak Samaj association founded by Phule propagated caste equality.
Why aid Phule dedicate his hook Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves?
In 1873,Phule wrote Gulamgiri. It means slavery.
- Some ten years before this, the American Civil War resulted in the abolition of slavery in America.
- Phule dedicated his book to all those Americans who fought to abolish slavery. Thus this book set up close relations between “lower” castes in India and the black slaves in America.
What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement?
Ambedkar was born into a Mahar family. In childhood, he experienced various forms of caste prejudices in his everyday life.
- Ambedkar led three such movements for temple entry between 1927 and 1935.
- His aim was to make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within society.
Why were Jyotirao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker critical of the national movement ?Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way?
- Both Jyoti Rao Phule and Naicker were critical of national movement in their own times.
- Jyoti Rao Phule was critical of nationalism preached by upper castes. He wrote that they give advice to Shudra, Muslim and Parsi youth to forget their differences and come together for progress of nation, later it will be “Me here and you over there” all over again.
- E V Ramaswamy Naicker became member of Congress. But left it in disgust when he found out that at a feast, organised by nationalists, seating arrangement was based on caste distinctions.
- Their assertions, forceful speeches and writings did lead to rethink and self criticism among the upper caste nationalist leaders.
Objective Type Questions
2. State whether True or False:
(1) Pandita Ramabai supported economic independence of women, set up widow homes, True
(2) Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country. False
(3) Jyotirao Phule set up schools for girls in Punjab. False
(4) Rhja Rammohun Roy was the founder of Braham Samaj. True
(5) People were dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s. True
3. Fill in the blanks:
- The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in 1929
- In 1873, Phule wrote Gulamgiri
- In 1940 the Muslim league demanded ‘Independent State’ for Muslims.
- Independence day was observed on 26th January 1930 all over the country.
- The knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws.
- Ambedkar was born into a Mahar
- Periyar was an outspoken critic of Hindu scriptures.
Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
1. Who supported the idea of self-respect movement?
(a) Mumtaz Ali
(b) Rammohun Roy
(d) Pandita Ramabai
2. The idea of widow remarriage was advocated by
(a) Dayanand Saraswati
(b) Jyotirao Phule
(d) Pandita Ramabai
3. The Satyashodhak Samaj association was founded by
(a) Mumtaz Ali
(c) Jyotirao Phule
(d) B.R. Ambedkar
4. Widow Remarriage Act was passed in the year
5. What is coolie ship?
(a) Luggage lifter at railway platform
(b) A ship that carried many Indians to Mauritius
(c) Association of Coolies
(d) None of the above
6. E.V. Ramaswamy was known by the name
(d) Dayanand Saraswati
7. During which period did Ambedkar lead three temple entry movement?
(a) Between 1900 to 1927
(b) Between 1927 to 1935
(c) Between 1935 to 1940
(d) Between 1940 to 1945
8. Prarathana Samaj was founded by
(a) H.L.V. Derozio
(b) Swami Vivekananda
(c) R.G. Bhandarkar
(d) Raja Rammohun Roy
9. Which of the reforms movement was founded by H.L.V. Derozio?
(a) Young Bengal
(b) Brahmo Samaj
(c) Veda Samaj
(d) Aligarh Movement
10. Who started schools for Muslim girls in Patna and Calcutta?
(a) Mumtaz Ali
(b) Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain
(c) Sayyid Ahmed Khan
(d) None of these
11. The first Urdu novels began to be written from
(a) the late sixteenth century
(b) the late seventeenth century
(c) the late eighteenth century
(d) the late nineteenth century
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