NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
The significance of reproductive health in a society is :
- Creating awareness among people about various reproduction related aspects.
- Providing facilities and support for building up re-productively healthy society.
- Various health centres ensure safe delivery of infant and postnatal care.
- Immunisation of infants against various diseases.
- Various family planning techniques and preventive methods against sexually transmitted diseases.
- Creating awareness about consequences of uncontrolled population growth and social evils (sex abuses and sex-related crimes, use of drugs, tobacco and alcohol etc.) among young people.
- Introduction of sex education in schools.
Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
Providing medical facilities and care to the problems like menstrual irregularities, pregnancy related aspects, delivery, medical termination of pregnancy, STDs, birth control, infertility. Post natal child maternal management is another important aspect of the reproductive and child health care programme.
Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Sex education is necessary in schools in order to give right information to the young minds about reproductive organs, adolescence related changes, safe sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases etc. All this knowledge will save them from myths and misconceptions about sex related aspects and also help them to lead a reproductively healthy life later in future.
Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
The reproductive health in our country has improved in the last 50 years. Some areas of improvement are :
- Massive child immunization.
- Increasing use of contraceptives.
- Better awareness about sex related matters.
- Increased number of medically assisted deliveries and better post-natal care leading to decreased maternal and infant mortality rates.
- Increased number of couples with small families.
- Better detection and cure of STDs and overall increased medical facilities for all sex related problems.
What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
The reasons for population explosion are :
- Decline in death rate.
- Decline in maternal mortality rate.
- Decline in infant mortality rate (IMR).
- Increase in the number of people in the reproductive age.
- Advancement in technology avoiding hunger death.
Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Yes, the use of contraceptives is justified: To overcome the population growth rate, contraceptive methods are used. It will help in bringing birth rate down & subsequently curb population growth. With the rapid spread of HIV/ AIDS in the country, there is now a growing realization about the need to know about contraceptions & condoms.
Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?
Devices or other agents that are used in artificial methods of preventing pregnancy are known as contraceptives. An ideal contraceptive should be user-friendly, easily available, effective with least or no side effects, should not interfere with the sexual drive, desire or the sexual act of the user. It should also be reversible. But removal of gonads is an irreversible process and will lead to infertility in both male and female. Moreover gonads also produce hormones which are essential for the body. Thus, removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option.
Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic technique to find out the genetic disorders and metabolic disorders of the foetus. Unfortunately, the useful technique of amnio-centesis had been misused to kill the normal female foetuses as it could help detect the sex of foetus also. Hence, this technique is now banned in our country. This ban is necessary as this technique was promoting female foeticide in our country.
Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
Some methods to assist infertile couples to have children are :
- Test tube babies – In this the fusion of ovum and sperm is done outside the body of woman to form a zygote which is allowed to divide to form embryo. This embryo is then implanted in uterus where it develops into a foetus.
- Artificial insemination Technique (AIT)- In this, the semen collected either from husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus (IUI – Intra Uterine Insemination) of the female.
- Gamete intra Fallopian transfer (GIFT)- This method is used in females who cannot produce ova but can provide suitable environment for fertilisation and further development of embryo in the oviducts. In such cases, ovum from the donor female is introduced into the Fallopian tube of such females. Such women then accept sperms from their husbands during copulation.
- Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)- This is another specialized technique to form an embryo in the laboratory in which a sperm is directly injected into the ovum placed in a nutrient broth. The zygote or early embryo is later transferred to Fallopian tube of woman by ZIFT.
What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs ?
Diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse are collectively called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or reproductive tract infect-ions (RT), e.g., gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, AIDS etc. The measures that one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs are :
- Avoid sex with unknown partners/multiple partners.
- use condoms during coitus.
- In case of doubt, go to a qualified doctor for early detection and get complete treatment if diagnosed with disease.
State True/False with explanation.
- Abortions could happen spontaneously too.
- Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner.
- Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception.
- Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people.
- True : One-third of all pregnancies abort spontaneously (called miscarriage) within four weeks of conception and abortion passes unrecognized with menses.
- False : Infertility is defined as the inability of the couple to produce viable offspring. It is due to abnormalities/defects in either male or female or both.
- True : Complete lactation is a natural method of contraception as during this period ovulation does not occur, but this is limited to a period of 6 months after parturition.
- True : Creating awareness in people about sex related aspects like right information about reproductive organs, accessory organs of reproduction, safe and hygienic sexual practices, birth control methods, care of pregnant women, post-natal care of mother and child, etc., can help in improving the reproductive health of people.
Correct the following statements.
- Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
- All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
- Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.
- In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
- Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete transport and hence prevent fertilisation.
- Only few sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable if detected early and treated properly.
- Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the educated urban women.
- In E.T techniques, 8 celled embryos are transferred into Fallopian tubes and more than 8 celled embryos are transferred into the uterus.
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