NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science. Here we have given. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture
1. Answer the following questions.
What is agriculture?
Agriculture is the primary activity which includes growing of crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock.
Name the factors influencing agriculture?
Factors influencing agriculture:
- Favourable Topography
What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Shifting cultivation is the type of farming in which agricultural activities are shifted from one field to another when the fertility of the soil of the former is diminished
- Soil erosion
- Small patches for cultivation
- Not sufficient for feeding large population.
What is plantation agriculture?
- Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial agriculture:
- It is a single crop farming which resembles factory production,
- Large amount of labour and capital is required.
- The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in factories.
- Crops like banana, rubber, tea, coffee etc. are grown on plantations.
Name the fiber crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth. Answer:
The two fibre crops are cotton and jute. The conditions required for their cultivation
|It requires high temperature.||High temperature required.|
|Light rainfall, 210 frost free days, bright sunshine for its growth.||Heavy rainfall.|
|Grows well in black and alluvial soil.||Grows well in alluvial soils.|
|Area of cultivation: China, USA India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt.||Areas of prod: India and Bangladesh.|
Tick the correct answer.
(1) Horticulture means
(a) growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat
(2) Golden fibre refers to
(3) Leading producers of coffee
In India, agriculture is a primary activity.
- In India agriculture is primary activity because:
- Of its tropical climate and topography which is suitable for cultivation.
- More than 60% of population is dependent on it.
- Needs food security for feeding millions.
Different crops are grown in different regions because of the following reasons:
- Different topography
- Different soils
- Different climates
- Different lifestyles of the people in different regions.
Distinguish between the followings.
(1) Primary activities and tertiary activities.
(2) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.
(1) Distinction between Primary Activities and Tertiary Activities.
1. Primary activities are those activities in which natural resources are obtained.
2. Examples: Extraction, hunting, mining, gathering, agriculture, fishing and rearing of livestocks.
1. Tertiary activities are those activities which provide support to primary and secondary sectors.
2. Examples: Transport, communication, trade, banking, insurance and advertising.
(2) Distinction between Subsistence and Intensive Farming.
Intensive farming is a part of subsistance farming. So both have a little difference. Still some differences are:
|Subsistence Fanning||Intensive Farming|
1. Subsistence farming is that type of farming practice in which the farmer raises agriculture crops for himself and his family.
2. Household labour are used.
3. Subsistence farming is done on traditional basis by traditional tools and implements.
4. Production is meant for own family only.
1. Intensive farming is an agricultural practice in which efforts are made to increase production with added units of labour and capital and raise two to three crops in a year.
2. Outside labour is hired.
3. Extra tools may be hired.
4. Production is primarily meant for domestic consumption. Excess is sold in the market.
Question 5 (1).
Collect seeds of wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, oilseeds and pulses available in the market. Bring them to the class and find out in which type of soil they grow.
Collect the seeds of wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, oilseeds and pulses available in the market yourself and bring them to the class
Find out the differences between the lifestyle of farmers in the USA and India on the basis of pictures collected from magazines, books, newspapers and the internet.
|Criteria||Farm in India||Farm in USA|
|Average size||1.5 Hectares.||250 Hectares.|
|Land tenure||Tenancy, share cropping fragmentation due to hereditary.||Freehold ownership.|
|Use of fertilizers, HYV seeds and irrigation.||Physical factors are less important.|
|Soil||Generally fertile gives two to three crops a year, use traditional knowledge.||Regular soil testing for nutrient deficiency.|
|Crops||Mainly food Crops along with other related activities. Wheat, rice, millets etc.||Specialized farming like com, soya bean, wheat, cotton etc.|
|Operations||Lack of use of scientific technology, machines, more of manual power.||Use of latest technical knowledge and satellite for information.|
|Lack of good transport, communication or even storage facilities, poor farmers.||Better facilities and prosperous farmers.|
|Human factors||Work as farm labour, many dependent on this activity.||Work as business person not as farmer.|
Solve the crossword puzzle with the help of given clues.
1. Crop that needs well-drained fertile soils, moderate temperatures and lots of sunshine (5)
1. Coarse grains are also called (7)
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