Here we are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Snapshots Chapter 7 Birth. Students can get Class 11 English Birth NCERT Solutions, Questions and Answers designed by subject expert teachers.
Birth NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Snapshots Chapter 7
Birth NCERT Text Book Questions and Answers
“I have done something; oh, God! I’ve done something real at last.” Why does Andrew say this? What does it mean?
Andrew Manson, a graduate from a medical school, had just begun his medical practice. At almost midnight, Joe Morgan came for him, looking visibly disturbed as his wife was to deliver. Andrew accompanied him. The night was an ordeal. At half-past three, after an hour’s difficult struggle, the child was bom lifeless and the mother’s condition was failing. Impulsively, he gave the child to the nurse and turned his concentration towards Susan Morgan who lay collapsed and almost pulse-less. He struggled to restore the lifeless woman and after a few minutes of intense effort, her heartbeat became steady.
Realising that she was safe, he quickly turned for the perfectly formed, but lifeless body of the child. He inferred that this unconscious condition was caused by a lack of oxygen and an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood. He continued struggling to resuscitate the child. However, after half an hour of laborious effort, the tiny chest began heaving. The recovery was miraculous. Finally, Andrew walked out tired, but relieved at having “done something real at last.” He had put the theories, he had studied, into practice and had saved a life.
There lies a great difference between textbook medicine and the world of a practising physician. Discuss.
Hints Textbook medicine
- tough and tedious but like any other field of study
- deals with learning and examination
- thrust on getting a degree
- focus on theory
- responsible for lives
- quick decisions
- service before self
- spirit of dedication
- judicious application of theory
Do you know of any incident when someone has been brought back to life from the brink of death through medical help. Discuss medical procedures such as organ transplant and organ regeneration that are used to save human life.
Heart, kidney and liver transplants are used when a person’s own organs are irreparably damaged, such as by a heart attack, severe kidney disease, or cirrhosis of the liver. The cornea is transplanted to cure blindness from comeal opacities. A comeal transplant will not cure any other form of blindness.
Bone marrow is transplanted to people with cancer of the blood-forming tissues, or leukaemia. The most widely practised transplants are those of kidneys and corneas, but heart and liver transplants are also routinely done. Transplants of hearts and bone marrow are mainly performed at centres that specialise in such surgery.
Autografting involves the transplanting or implanting of living tissue from one part of the body to another in order to make the tissue adhere and grow to supply a missing part. Skin and bone grafting, which involve advanced plastic surgery techniques, are prime examples of autografts; in cases of severe bums, however, the patient will receive donor skin tissue which, although temporarily valuable, will always eventually be rejected by the patient’s immune system.
In most types of transplants, the difficulties that arise are not ones of surgical technique. Instead, they are due to rejection of the new organ by the recipient’s immune system. This occurs because each person’s tissue cells bear a unique set of surface markers called HLA antigens. These substances are recognised as foreign by the recipient’s immune system, which mounts an attack against them. The success of a transplant depends on the donor and recipient having as many HLA antigens in common as possible.
Regeneration, in biology, is the ability of a living organism to regrow a portion of its body that has been injured or lost. So far, only reptiles could regenerate on a very limited scale, for example, lizards shedding their tails. Mammals have no regenerating ability; they are more complex creatures and their ability to regenerate was lost because of complexity. Now, scientists have successfully created a miracle mouse that can regenerate amputated or badly damaged parts of its body.
The new ability can keep a mouse alive after sustaining a deadly wound. It can look unreal to you yet a mouse can regenerate not only its tail or a damaged joint, it can also restore its heart. Brain is the only organ the mouse cannot regenerate. In other words, the future holds dramatic changes in store for science if the discovery is confirmed.