Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 6 Secondary Activities. Important Questions for Class 12 Geography are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Secondary Activities Class 12 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 6
Secondary Activities Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Which is the smallest unit of manufacturing ?
Where is the Silicon Valley located ?
Give one example of Large Scale Industries.
Iron and Steel.
Which industry is called the basic industry ?
Iron and Steel.
Give one example of Agro based industries.
To which group, does Plastic Industry belong to ?
Name an industry of Public Sector.
Bokaro Steel plant.
In which town of India, is diamondcutting done ?
Name the largest Iron and Steel region of U.SA.
Great lake region.
Which is the advanced stage of mechanisation ?
Name major Agro-processing industries.
Food processing, sugar, pickles, fruit juices.
Name two forest based industries.
Paper and Lac.
What are smokestack industries ?
Which is the more important industrial region of Germany ? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Secondary Activities Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Which processes help secondary activities ?
Secondary activities change the form and value of raw material by the following process :
Make a list of the processes used in manufacturing.
- Modern power
- Modern machinery
- Specialised labour
- Mass production
- Production of standardised products.
Give two examples each of Basic and Consumer industries.
Iron and steel, copper industries are basic industries, Tea and soap are consumer industries.
Why Iron and Steel industry is considered a basic industry ?
Iron and steel provides base for all other industries, so it is called a basic industry. It is used to make everything from sewing needle to rail sheets, tubes, wires, machines etc.
Explain the main characteristic of professional workers (White collar). (Out side Delhi 2019)
White collar workers does clerical workan in an office and draws monthly salaries at a fixed price. They perform managerial work for the organization.
What is a techno-pole ? (Outside Delhi 2019)
echno-poles include Science Parks, Science Cities and other High-tech Industrial Complexes.
What is automation ?
Where machines, use gadgets to do work, it is called automation. It is without human thinking. It is an advanced stage of mechanisation. These have computer control systems.
What factors have reduced the dependence of industry upon labour ?
- Increasing Mechanisation
- Flexibility of Industrial processes.
‘Secondary activities add value to natural resources.’ Explain with two examples.
Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into more usable products. Most of the materials from the farm, forest, mine and the sea are transformed into valuable products. Secondary activities, therefore are concerned with manufacturing, processing and construction (infrastructure) industries.
(i) Cotton in the boll has little use but after it is transformed into yam, it becomes more useful and valuable
(ii) Iron ore, directly from the mines, is practically useless; but after being made into steel gets its value and can be used for making many valuable machines.
What are characteristics of modern manufacturing ? (Imp)
Modern manufacturing is characterised by :
- a complex machine technology
- extreme specialisation and division of labour for producing more goods with less efforts,
- vast capital
- large organisations and
- executive bureaucracy.
Describe some common products of household industries. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Some common everyday products produced in this sector of manufacturing include foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, furniture, shoes and figurines from wood lot and forest; shoes, thongs and other articles from leather ; porcelain, pottery and bricks from clays and stones ; jewellery and figurines from jade, ivory, pearls, bronze, gold and silver; and home remedies, paints, dyes, lacquer ware from saps, barks and seeds of plants.
Explain any five characteristics of large scale manufacturing in the world. (Delhi 2019)
- This manufacturing involves a huge market, different raw materials specialized workers advanced technology, etc. This type of manufacturing developed in the last 200 years.
- A large proportion of employment in manufacturing industries.
- Large scale industris use power driven heavy machines.
- These industries form the basis of development in developed countries.
- A large number of goods are produced for a bigger market.
What are the characteristics of traditional large scale Industrial regions ? (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Traditional Large-Scale Industrial Regions
These are based on heavy industry, often located near coalfields and engaged in metal smelting, heavy engineering, chemical manufacture or textile production. These industries are now known as smokestack industries.
Traditional industrial regions can be recognized by :
- High proportion of employment in manufacturing industry.
- High-density housing, often of inferior type, and poor services.
- Unattractive environment, for example, pollution, waste tips, and so on.
- Problems of unemployment, emigration and derelict land areas caused by closure of factories because of a world-wide fall in demand.
What a techno pole ?
Techno-poles. The locational impact of high-tech activities is already emerging in advanced industrialised countries. The most noticeable phenomena is the emergence of new technology-oriented complexes or techno-poles. A techno-pole is a planned development within a concentrated area, for technology innovative, industrial related production. Techno-poles include science or technology parks, science cities, and other high-tech industrial complexes.
Write a short note on cotton textile industries of the world,
Textile Industries. These are labourintensive industries that require less-skilled, low-cost workers. The production steps include spinning of fibre, weaving of yam, and finishing of fabric. Manufacturing is concentrated in countries where the main raw material-cotton-is grown. China, India, Pakistan, USA and Uzbekistan grow and produce more than half of the world’s cotton and cotton textiles.
The UK, Northwest Europe and Japan are also leading manufacturers depending on imported fibre and yarn. Europe alone accounts for nearly half of the world cotton imports. The industry has now declined in many countries but the main centres still retain some of the finishing trades. The future of the industry is bright in Asian countries due to the rising standard of living and a booming global market.
Explain any five characteristics of hightech industry in the world. (Delhi 2019)
(i) Professional workers make up a large share of the total workforce.
(ii) Neatly spaced, low and modern offices and factories, along with planned business parks for hightech start-ups are its characteristics.
(iii) Hightech industry is regionally. Concentrated, self sustained and highly specialised and known as technopolies.
(iv) For hightech start ups planned business parks have become part of regional and local developments.
(v) Hightech industries are the latest generation of manufacturing activities.
Describe any three characteristics of ‘Household industries.’(C.B.S.E.2014)
Characteristics of household industries :
- It is the smallest manufacturing unit. They use simple tools. The scale of operation is small.
- The craft spersons or artisans produce everyday goods in their homes with the help of their family members.
- These goods are locally marketed as finished goods.
Examples : Common everyday products are foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, shoes, furniture, pottery, etc.
Explain any four features of small manufacturing. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
- Small manufacturing uses local raw materials.
- Semi-skilled labour is used.
- The goods are sold in local markets.
- It provides employment in large number.
(i) Distinguish between Private Sector and Public Sector.
|Private Sector||Public Sector|
|1. The industries owned and managed by individuals are said to be under private sector.||1. The industries owned collectively by a community or the government means public sector.|
|2. Many industries run by capitalists like Birla, Tata are under private sector.||2. Schools, public buildings nationalised industries are under public sector. Bhilai Steel Plant is under public sector.|
|3. Private sector runs under strong competition as in Japan and U.S.A.||3. Public sector runs on socialistic pattern such as Russia and India.|
(ii) Distinguish between Agro-Industries and Heavy Industries.
Describe any three characterstics of agro based industries in the world. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi Set-II 2017)
|1. Agro-industries are based on products of primary occupations such as agriculture.||1. Heavy industries are based on manufactured goods involving use of machines.|
|2. Agricultural products are processed to useful products such as textiles from cotton, sugar from sugarcane.||2. A number of complex products are manufactured from semi finished goods as iron used in the making of machinery.|
|3. These are labourintensive industries.||3. These are capitalintensive industries.|
|4. These cover small scale and medium scale industries.||4. These cover large sea industries.|
(iii) Differentiate between small scale manufacturing and large scale manufacturing. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
|large scale manufacturing||Small scale manufacturing|
|1. Large scale industries use power driven heavy machines.||1. Small scale industries use small power driven machines.|
|2. Large amount of capital is invested.||2. A small amount of capital is invested.|
|3. These industries form the basis of development in developed countries.||3. These industries provide employment in developing countries.|
Secondary Activities Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Classify industries on different bases.
Classification of Industries
Industries can be classified in many ways like-size, nature of products, raw materials, ownership, inputs and outputs.
1. Classification by Size
The amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production determines the size of an industry. Accordingly, industries may be classified into the following groups:
(a) Cottage or household
(b) Small scale and
(c) Large scale industries.
(a) Cottage or household industries. These are smallest manufacturing units. The craftsmen or the artisans with the help of their partime labour i.e., family members manufacture goods within their homes. These use local raw material and simple tools. The skills of production are passed on from one generation to the other.
The scale of operation is small. The tools and equipments are ordinary. The goods produced are generally sold locally. Example : Thus potters, carpenters, weavers and blacksmiths produce goods in the household sector.
(b) Small scale industries. They use modem power driven machines and employ semi skilled labour as well. The raw materials are also obtained from outside, if not available locally. These industries are larger in size than cottage industries. Their products are sold through traders beyond local markets. They provide employment to a large number of people.
Example : In countries like India, Brazil, Indonesia and China, a large number of goods such as clothes, toys, furniture, edible oil and leather goods are produced by small scale industries.
(c) Large scale industries. These include mainly heavy and capital intensive industries. These use energy, heavy machineries, employ large number of workers and produce goods for a bigger market. Emphasis is laid on quality control and production specialisation. Such industries require a very large resource base and hence raw materials are obtained from various places. The production of goods is also on a large scale, which is sent to distant markets.
These industries, therefore, require good infrastructure facilities such as roads, railways and power supply.
Example : Iron and steel industry, petro-chemicals, textiles and automobiles fall under this category in U.K., U.S.A and Europe. These are located in Large scale industrial regions and High-technology regions.
2. On the basis of size of operation and the nature of products. There are two classes of industries,
(i) Heavy industries are of large scale. They deal in bulky products and are heavily dependent on the raw materials
and hence tend to be located near the source of raw material e.g. iron and steel industry,
(ii) Light industries are usually small-scale in operation. They deal in fighter and compact products. For them, accessibility is the most important factor. Example : The electronics is one example of this kind.
3. Classification by Outputs
(a) Basic industries. Industries whose products are used to produce other goods are called basic industries. Iron and steel industry is one of the basic industries because steel produced by this industry is used in many other industries as a raw material. Some basic industries produce machines which are used to produce other goods.
(b) Consumer Goods Industries. Industries which produce goods for direct consumption such as tea, bread, soap and television are known as non-basic or consumer goods industries.
4. Classification by Inputs. Depending upon the raw materials used for the industries, they may be classified as agro-based, forest-based, metallic industries and chemical industries.
(a) Agro-based Industries. These utilise agricultural products as raw materials. Cotton, tea, sugar and, food-processing, vegetable oil industries Eire its examples.
(b) Forest-based Industries. These utilise forest products as raw materials e.g. paper and furniture industry.
(c) Mineral-based Industries. These use minerals as raw materials, such as, iron, cement, copper, etc.
(d) Metallic Industries. Industries based on metals are known as metallic industries. These are further divided into ferrous and non-ferrous industries. Industries based on metals having iron content are called ferrous industries e.g. iron and steel industry. On the other hand, industries based on metals without iron content fall into the category of non-ferrous industries e.g. copper and aluminium.
(e) Chemical Industries. Industries based on chemicals are called chemical industries e.g. petro-chemical, plastics, synthetics, fibres and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries use raw materials found naturally e.g. minerals such as mineral- oil, salts, sulphur and potash, and vegetable products such as pulp. Some chemical industries use the byproducts of other industries.
(f) Animal based industries such as leather, wool.
5. Classification by Ownership. On the basis of the ownership pattern and management practices, industries can be classified into Government or Public, Private and Joint Sectors.
(i) When the ownership and management of an industry is in the hands of the state, it is called a public sector industry. The state establishes and runs these units.
(ii) Industries owned and managed by an individual or a corporate body belong to the private sector.
(iii) When individuals invest their own capital to establish industries, they manage them as private enterprise. Sometimes individuals join together under partnership to establish industries. The share of partners both in the capital investment and profits is pre-deeided. Industries are also established by corporations. Such a body is formed by individuals or organisations to fulfill pre-determined objectives and goals. Capital for the industry is collected by selling shares.
Explain the locational factors of industries with the help of suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Manufacturing. Manufacturing is a secondary process of transforming raw materials into finished products. The raw materials of agriculture, forests, minerals are changed into new products. For example, clay is changed into pottery; timber is changed into furniture. These manufactured goods are more useful and valuable than the raw materials. The location of manufacturing industries depends on a number of physical and socio-economic factors. These factors are called the basis of industries. No single factor decides the location of industries.
1. Nearness to raw materials. Large quantities of raw materials are needed for industries. Therefore, industries are located near the source of raw materials. The industries are located near mines, forests, farms and seas. It saves the cost of transportation. Sugar mills are located in the areas where sugarcane is produced.
Iron and steel industry uses bulky raw materials. Steel centres are developed where coal and iron are easily available. Industries producing perishable goods (meat, fish and dairy products) are located near the areas of production. Example: Jute mills in West Bengal and Cotton Textile mills in Maharashtra are located due to the availability of the raw materials.
2. Power resources. Coal, oil and water power are the main sources of power. Most of the industries are located around coal-fields. The industrial regions of Damodar Valley (India) and Ruhr Valley (Germany) depend upon coal.
Some industries use large amount of electricity. Such industries like chemical industries, aluminium industries and paper industry are located near hydro electric stations, Petro-chemical Industries use large quantities of petroleum. Example : Iron and steel centres in India are located near Jharia and Raniganj coal-fields. Chemical fertilizer plant is located at Nangal where cheap water power is available from Bhakra Project.
3. Means of transportation. Modern industries need cheap, developed arid quick means of transportation. Water-transport is the cheapest means of transport. Cheap means of transportation are required for the movement of workers, raw materials and machinery to the factories.
Manufactured goods should be sent to the market at low cost. Example : The great industrial regions of the world (Europe and the U.S.A.) lie at the ends of North Atlantic Ocean Route. Great Lakes provide cheap transport to the industrial region of the U.S.A.
4. Climate : Stimulating climate increases the efficiency of the labourers. Certain industries require special type of climate. Cotton Textile industry requires humid climate. Film industry needs good weather with clear blue sky. Areas with favourable climate become huge markets.
Examples : Mumbai is the leading centre of Cotton Textile due to wet coastal climate. Dry climate has led to the location of Aircraft Industry at Bengaluru (India) and California (U.S.A.).
5. Capital. Large amount of capital is invested in many industries. Many industries have been located in big cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. Many banks and companies provide capital in these areas.
6. Skilled labour. Cheap and skilled labour is essential for the location of the industries. Areas of dense population provide cheap and large labour force. Engineering industries need skilled labour.
Example: Cotton Textile industry in Lancashire, Glass industries in Ferozabad, Sports goods industry in Jalandhar are located due to availability of the skilled labour. The Swiss are known for watch making, the British for specialised cotton textiles, the Japanese for electronic goods and Varanasi is known for silk embroidery.
7. Cheap land. Heavy industries need cheap level land. Steel industry at Jamshedpur is located in a broad river-valley.
8. Government policies. Most of the industries are located with government aid. Government policies may encourage or discourage the industries in an area. Government may offer cheap land, reduce taxes; help in providing machinery and transport.
9. Nearness to market. Industries are located near the market for the manufactured goods. Urban and industrial centres with dense population provide a large market. Market is based on demand and the purchasing power of the people. Countries of Asia don’t make a huge market because the people cannot afford to buy goods. Dairy industries are located near the ready markets of towns. Light Engineering industries are located near the big factories which require these goods. Aircraft and arm industry have a global market.
10. Early start. Momentum of an early start leads to the location of an industry such as Cotton Textile in Mumbai.
11. Defence. Some industries are located with a military motive such as Aircraft industry at Bengaluru.
Describe the location and development of iron and steel industry in different countries of the world.
Iron and steel industry. Iron and steel industry is the basis of modern industrialisation. It is the foundation of modem machines, tools, transportation (rail, road, water, air). It is used in making superstructures, bridges, tanks, agricultural implements and many products of daily use. It has great strength, toughness, elasticity and low cost of production. The production and consumption of steel is the index of the economic development of country. Ours is truly an ‘age of steel’.
Factors for the location of Industry.
- Raw materials. Iron and steel industry needs the bulky raw materials of manganese, limestone and scrap iron.
- Coking coal. Coking coal or charcoal is required for smelting of iron ore.
- Cheap land. Modem steel plants, furnaces require cheap level land.
- Market. The products of iron and steel industry demand a big consuming market.
- Capital. Iron and steel industry requires huge capital. Lack of capital is a main obstacle to this industry in developing countries.
- Other Factors. Iron and steel industry needs cheap transport, skilled labour and modern techniques.
During the last 50 years, world production of steel has increased six times. This industry is widely distributed in many countries.
1. Russia. Russia is the largest producer of iron and steel in the world.
(i) Ukraine region. Southern Ukraine (near Black Sea) is the oldest and the leading iron and steel producing region. Stalino Rostov and Voroshilovsk, Krivoirog, Donetsk are the main centres of steel production.
(ii) Ural region: Magnitogorsk and Chelyabisk are chief steel centres.
(iii) Moscow region: Moscow, Tula and Gorky are the main centres.
(iv) Other areas: Stalinsk, Vladivostok, Tashkent, St. Petersberg, Tbilisi are other important centres of iron and steel industry.
2. U.S.A. The U.S.A. is the second largest producer of iron and steel in the world. Pittsberg-Youngstown is the leading centre of iron and steel industry.
The important steel centres :
(i) Pittsberg : Youngstown Region. (Rust Bowl of U.S.A.)
(ii) Great Lakes Region with:
(a) Duluth on Superior Lake.
(b) Chicago and Gary on Michigan Lake.
(c) Detroit, Erie, Cleveland and Buffalo on Lake Erie.
(iii) Birmingham: Alabama Region.
(iv) Mid-Atlantic region with steel plants at Sparrow point, Bethleham and Morrisville.
(v) The western states with centres as Puebelo, Tocoma, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Fontana.
3. Japan : Japan with 15% steel production is the third largest producer of iron and steel.
- Moji-Nagasaki region has Yawata Steel centre.
- Kamaishi in Honshu island.
- Mororan in Hokkaido island.
- Kobe-Osaka region.
- Tokyo-Yokohama region.
4. Germany: Iron and steel industry is centred in Westphalian Region in Ruhr Valley. The important steel producing centres are Essen, Bochum, Dortmund, Dusseldorf and Solingen. Germany has large reserves of coking coal, but iron ore is imported from Sweden. Rivers and canals provide cheap transport. Lecruresat and St. Ettienne are in France.
5. Great Britain : Great Britain has been the pioneer in steel industry. It was the largest producer of steel in the world till 1890. This region has advantage of an early start, local deposits of coal and iron ore, technical knowledge, cheap transport and huge demand. The main steel centres are :
- South Wales—Cardiff.
- N.E. Coast—New Castle, Middles Borough and Darlington.
- Yorkshire—Sheffields (famous for cutlery goods).
- Midland -Region-—Birmingham (known as Black country).
6. China : China has made rapid progress in steel industry. China is the largest steel producer in Asia.
- Manchuria—Anshan and Mukden.
- Yangtz valley—Wuhan, Shanghai.
- Shensi—Shansi Region—Beijing, Tientsin.
- Canton, Tsingtao, Chinlingchen, Hupeh.
7. India: The first modem steel plant was established in 1907 at Sakchi (Jamshedpur) in Bihar, by Jamshedji Tata. India produces the cheapest steel in the world. India produces 320 lakh tons of steel and 100 lakh tons
of pig iron. With the establishment of new steel plants, it is expected to reach 500 lakh tons of steel.
Centres of production:
I. Damodar Valley. This region has TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) steel plant at Jamshedpur and IISCO (Indian Iron and Steel Company) steel plant, at Kulti- Bumpur.
II. Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited. This steel plant is located at Bhadravati (Karnataka). It produces alloy and special steel.
III. Steel Centres in Public Sector—Four steel plants have been developed in the public sector, under HSL (Hindustan Steel Limited) with the collaboration of some foreign countries.
- Bhilai (Chhattisgarh)—With the help of Russia.
- Rourkela (Odisha)—By German Firm Krupps — Demag.
- Durgapur (W. Bengal)—With British aid.
- Boka.ro (Jharkhand)—With Russian help.
IV. New Steel Plants. The government has decided to set up three new plants by Sail at:
- Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)
- Salem (Tamil Nadu).
- Vijaynagar (Near Hospet, Karnataka).
Write a short note on Silicon Valley.
‘Silicon Valley’ technopolis :
The development of Silicon valley is attributed to the work of Frederick Terman, a professor and later, Vice-President of Stanford University at Palo Alto, in the northwestern part of Santa Clara country in California. In 1930s, Terman encouraged his students in electrical engineering to stay in the areas and establish their own companies.
One of the first companies was set up by William Hewlett and David Packard in a garage near the University campus. Now it is one of the world’s largest electronic firms. By the end of 1950s Terman had persuaded Stanford University to develop a special industrial park for such new high-tech firms. It created a hot house of innovation and generating a significant specialized work force and produce services.
It has sustained the continued agglomeration of high-tech electronics and has also attracted other high-tech industries. For example, nearly a third of all employment in biotechnology in the USA is located in California. Of this, over 90 percent is located in the San Francisco Bay area. Stanford University has been receiving increasing amount of donations from grateful companies, which runs into millions of dollars annually.
Secondary Activities Important Extra Questions HOTS
Which is the most important industrial complex of Europe and why ?
Rhine valley is the most important industrial complex of Europe. This complex extends from Switzerland to West Germany. Ruhr coalfield is located in this complex. Rail, Road, Water, Transport (canals and rivers) are available here. Local labour is available. Local demand is great due to dense population. Water power is abundantly available.
Why are developing countries less industrialised ?
Manufacturing industries require capital. Market is also essential for these industries. But in developing countries, there is shortage of capital. People have low purchasing power. So there is less demand. Therefore, there is rather absence of industries in developing countries.