CA Foundation Business & Commercial Knowledge Study Material Chapter 2 Business Environment – Meaning of Business Environment
Business enterprises do not function in isolation. They operate within charging environment. Various elements of this environment and changes in them exercise a significant influence on the working and performance of business firms.
Meaning of Business Environment
The term business environment means “the aggregate of all the forces, factors and institutions which are external to and beyond the control of an individual business enterprise but which exercise a significant influence on the functioning and growth of individual enterprises.” Keith Davis defines business environment as “the aggregate of all conditions, events and influences that surround and affect business.”
According to Bayord O. Wheeler, business environment refers to “the total of all things external to firms and industries which affect their organisation and operation”.
In the words of Arthtur M. Weimer, “business environment encompasses the climate or set of conditions, economic, social, political, or institutional in which business operations are conducted”.
Thus, business environment means all those internal and external factors that have an impact on business.
Nature (Characteristics) of Business Environment
Business environment is characterised by the following features:
- Aggregative –
Business environment is the totality of all the internal and external forces which influence the working and decision-making of an enterprise.
- Inter-related –
Different elements of business environment are closely inter-related and interdependent. A change in one element affects the other elements. Economic environment influences the non-economic environment which in turn affects the economic conditions. For example, economic liberalisation in India since 1991 has opened up new opportunities for private sector and foreign entrepreneurs. Similarly, social pressures against pollution led to the enactment of anti-pollution laws. Therefore, managers should not consider environmental factors in isolation from one another. A holistic approach is necessary for proper understanding of business environment.
- Dynamic –
Business environment is dynamic in nature as it keeps on changing from time to time.
- General and Specific Forces –
Business environment consists of both general and specific forces. General forces such as economic, social, political, legal, natural and technological conditions influence all business enterprises. Specific forces such as investors, customers, competitors, suppliers, etc. affect individual enterprises directly.
- Relative –
Business environment is a relative concept. It differs from country to country and even region to region. Capitalist economies like those of USA and UK have a different kind of environment than communist economies. The nature of economic system in a country affects the environment of business.
- Inter-temporal –
Business environment is also an inter-temporal concept as it changes over time. For example, business environment in India today is much different from that prevailing before 1991. In the short run business environment may remain static. But in the long run, it does change.
- Uncertain –
Business environment is largely uncertain because it is very difficult to forecast the future environment. When the environment is volatile, ie., changes very fast, uncertainty increases.
- Contextual –
Business environment provides the macro framework within which the business firm (a micro unit) operates. The environmental forces are largely those given within which an individual enterprise and its management must function.
Business environment exercises tremendous influence on the working and success of business firms. Different elements of business environment have different types and degrees of influence on business. A factor that has a favourable impact on one firm may adversely effect another firm. Therefore, management of a business enterprise must have a deep understanding and appreciation of the environment. The changes taking place in environment must be continuously monitored to judge their impact on business. Appropriate and timely steps must be taken to face the environmental changes.
Significance of Business Environment
The survival and success of any enterprise depends upon its inherent capabilities (physical, financial, human and other resources) and its ability to adapt to the changing environment.
It is very important for business firms to understand their environment and changes occurring in it. Business enterprises which know their environment and are ready to adapt to environmental changes would be successful. On the other hand, firms which fail to adapt to their environment are unlikely to survive in the long run. For example, some Indian firms suffered considerably because they failed to appreciate the tightening regulations against environmental pollution. Knowledge of environmental changes is very helpful in the formulation and implementation of business plans. A business can obtain this knowledge through environmental scanning. Environmental scanning is the process by which organisations monitor their relevant environment to identify opportunities and threats affecting their business. With the help of environmental scanning, an enterprise can consider the impact of different events, trends, issues and expectations on its business operations. Firms which systematically analyse and diagnose the environment are more effective than those which do not.
Some of the direct benefits of understanding the environment are given below:
- First Mover Advantage – Awareness of environment helps an enterprise to take advantage of early opportunities instead of losing them to competitors. For example, Maruti Suzuki became the leader in small car market because it was the first to recognise the need for small car on account of rising petroleum prices and a large middle class.
- Early Warning Signal – Environmental awareness serves as an early warning signal. It makes a firm aware of the impending threat or crisis so that the firm can take timely action to minimise the adverse effects, if any. For example, ‘when new firms entered in the mid segment cars (threat), Maruti Suzuki increased the production of its Esteem threefold. Increase in production enabled the company to make faster delivery. As a result the company captured a substantial share of the market and became a leader in this segment.
- Customer Focus – Environmental understanding makes the management sensitive to the changing needs and expectations of consumers. For example, Hindustan Unilever and several other FMCG companies launched small sachets of shampoo and other products realising the wishes of customers. This move helped the firms to increase sales.
- Strategy Formulation – Environmental monitoring provides relevant information about the business environment. Such information serves as the basis for strategy making. For example, ITC realised that there is a vast scope for growth in the travel and tourism industry in India and the Government is keen to promote this industry because of its employment potential. With the help of this knowledge, ITC planned new hotels both in India and abroad. Study of environment enables an organisation to analyse its competitors’ strategies and thereby formulate effective counter strategies. All strategic decisions such as what business to do, whether to expand or reduce a business, and so on require a thorough understanding of the internal and external environment of the organisation.
- Change Agent – Business leaders act as agents of change. They create a drive for change at the gross root level. In order to decide the direction and nature of change, the leaders need to understand the aspirations of people and other environmental forces through environmental scanning. For example, contemporary environment requires prompt decision-making and power to people. Therefore, business leaders are increasingly delegating authority to empower their staff and to eliminate procedural delays.
- Public Image – A business firm can improve its image by showing that it is sensitive to its environment and responsive to the aspirations of public. Leading firms like Reliance Industries, ICICI Bank and others have built good image by being sensitive and responsive to environmental forces. Environmental understanding enables business to be responsive to their environment.
- Continuous Learning – Environmental analysis serves as broad based and ongoing education for business executives. It keeps them in touch with the changing scenario so that they are never caught unaware. With the help of environmental learning managers can react in an appropriate manner and thereby increase the success of their organisations. Knowledge of changing environment can keep the organisation dynamic in its approach.
There are two major components of business environment-micro and macro.