Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 Federalism
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 2 Federalism.
QUESTIONS OF 1 MARK
Answers should not exceed 30 words.
In 1993, what change in the form of government took place in Belgium ? ”
In 1993, Belgium shifted from a unitary to a federal form of government because the regional governments were given constitutional powers. The regional governments were no longer dependent on the central government.
What is federalism ?
Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.
Name any two countries in the west having federal form of government.
USA and Canada.
What is jurisdiction ?
Jurisdiction is the area over which some one has legal authority. The area may be defined in terms of geographical boundaries or in terms of certain kinds of subjects.
What is the unitary system of government ?
Under the unitary system, either there is only one level of government or the sub units are subordinate to the central government.
How can the fundamental provisions of the constitution be changed or amended in a federal system of government ?
The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
What other factors besides politics keep federations united ?[CBSE 2016-17]
Mutual trust and agreement to live together are other factors that keep federations together.
What is the nature of Indian federal system ? [CBSE 2016-17]
Indian federal system is an example of ‘holding together’ type of federation.
Give two examples of ‘coming together’ federation.
USA, Switzerland and Australia.
State any one feature that makes India a federal country.
The Constitution divides legistative powers between the Union Government and the State Governments. It has three lists viz Union list, State list and Concurrent list.
State any two subjects included in the Union List.
- Defence of the country.
- Foreign Affairs.
Which are the subjects included in the State List ? Mention any two.
- Police and
What are residuary subjects ? Who can make law on these subjects ?
- The residuary subjects are those subjects that are not included in any list.
- The Union Government has the power to legislate on ‘residuary’ subjects.
Which government can make law on subjects included in the concurrent list ?
Both the Union and the State Governments can make law on the subjects included in the concurrent list.
In case of any disputes about the division of powers which institution decides it ?
In case of any dispute about the division of powers, the High Courts and the Supreme Court make a decision.
Which state of the India has its own constitution ?
Jammu and Kashmir.
Name any two Union Territories.
Chandigarh and Lakshadweep.
What happened in Pokharan ? Where is it ?
Pokharan is the place where India conducted its nuclear tests. It is in Rajasthan.
Which states have been created to recongnise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography ?
Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand.
State one advantage of formation of linguistic states.
The formation of linguistic states has made the country more united. It has also made administration easier.
How many languages are recongnised as scheduled languages by the Indian Constitution ?
22 languages are recongnised as scheduled languages by the Constitution.
What is the status of Hindi in India ?
Hindi was identified as the official language.
What is a coalition government ?
A government formed by the coming together of at least two political parties. Usually partners in a coalition form a political alliance and adopt a common programmer.
When was the report of the States Reorganisation Commission was implemented ?
1 November 1956.
What is decentralisation ?
When power is taken away from the central and state government and given to local government, it is called decentralisation.
What steps have been taken to make the third tier of democracy more powerful and effective ? Mention any two.
- It is constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.
- An independent institution called the State Election Commission has been created in each state to conduct panchayat and municipal elections’
How many seats in the local government bodies are reserved for women ?
At least one-third of all positions are reserved for Women.
How are rural local government in India popularly known ?
Rural local government in India is popularly known by the name Panchayati Raj.
Who are members of the Gram Sabha in a village ?
All the voters in the village are members of the Gram Sabha.
What is the official post for the chair person of a Municipal Corporation ?
What is the approximate number of elected representatives in the panchayats and municipalities etc. ?Answer:
About 36 lakhs.
Which problems are being faced by the local bodies ? Mention any two.
- Many state governments have not transferred significant powers to the local governments.
- Adequate resources have not been provided to local bodies.
QUESTIONS OF 3/5 MARKS
Answers should be in about 80/100 words.
What are the differences between a federal form of government and a unitary one ? Explain.
Analyse features of federalism.
Compare and contrast the federal system of government with unitary system of government.
How is federal govt, different from unitary govt. ? [CBSE 2016-17]
Two systems of government i.e., federal system and unitary system can be compared as given below :
|Federal Government||Unitary Government|
(1) There are two or more levels of governments e.g., National, State and Local governments.
(2) There is division of powers between different levels of governments.
(3) State governments are not answerable to the Central or National government.
(4) Jurisdiction of each government i.e., state and central is specified in the constitution and cannot be changed unilaterally.
(5) Constitutional amendment cannot be made without the consent of the state governments.
(6) Courts such as Supreme Court of India safeguards and interprets the Constitution.
(7) Sources of revenue are divided among different levels of government.
(8) It has two objectives – to safeguard and promote unity of the country. Secondly to accommodate regional diversity. So there should be trust and agreement to live together
(1) Generally, there is only one level of government. In case of sub-units, they are subordinate to the national government.
(2) There is no division of powers. The Central or National government has all the powers.
(3) The state governments or sub-units are answerable to the Central government.
(4) All powers are with the Central government. There is no separate jurisdiction for the sub-units. The Central government can grant them powers and take back at any time.
(5) The Central government alone can make constitutional amendment like an ordinary law.
(6) Courts do not enjoy powers of safe-guarding/interpreting the constitution.
(7) Sources of revenue are controlled by the Central government.
(8) There is no such objective as there is only one government that controls the whole country.
Distinguish between ‘coming together’ and ‘holding together’ types of federations. India comes under which type of federation ?
Describe different routes for formation of federations in different countries and their impact.
(1) There are two routes that have been adopted for formation of federations in the world. The differences between the two are as mentioned below :
‘Coming together’ Federations
‘Holding together’ Federations
(1) These forms of federations are formed by independent states which come together on their own to form federation.
(2) The object is to form a bigger unit so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity, they can increase their security.
(3) The examples of this type of federations are the USA, Switzerland and Australia.
(4) All the constituent states and federal government have equal powers and are strong vis-a-vis the federal government
(1) Under these federations, large country decides to divide its power between the constituent States and the national government.
(2) The object is to have a powerful central government to maintain unity in diversity. For example in India the central govt, has more powers than the states.
(3) The examples of this type of federations are India, Spain and Belgium.
(4) In such federations, the national or central government is powerful than the states or provinces as in India. Some states may have unequal powers or special powers. For example in India Jammu and Kashmir has its own constitution. Many provisions of the Indian constitution are not applicable to this state without the approval of the State Assembly. Special provisions exist for some other states of India as well.
(2) India comes under ‘holding together’ federation.
How are legislative powers divided between Union govt, and state govts ? [CBSE 2016-17]
Examine what makes India a federal country. [CBSE 2016-17]
What are the salient features of federalism in India ?
The salient features of federalism in India are as mentioned below :
(1) Two-three levels of government : In the beginning, the Constitution provided for a two-tier system of government e., the Union or National government and the State governments. Later, a third-tier of federalism was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities. These tiers enjoy separate jurisdiction.
(2) Division of legislative powers :
The Constitution clearly provided threefold distribution of legislative powers between the Union Government and the State governments as mentioned below :
- Union list :
- It includes subjects of national importance such as defence of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications and currency.
- These are included in this list because we need a uniform policy on these matters throughout the country.
- The Union Government alone can make laws relating to the subjects in the Union list.
- State list :
- This list contains subjects of state and local importance such as police, trade commerce, agriculture and irrigation.
- The State Governments alone can make laws relating to these subjects.
- Concurrent list :
- It includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Govt, as well as the State Governments, such as education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession.
- Both the Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on these subjects.
- In case the laws conflict with each other, the law made by the Union Govt, will prevail.
- Residuary powers :
- These include the subjects not included in three lists or subjects like computer software that came up after the Constitution was made.
- The central govt, can make laws on such subjects.
- Rigid constitution : Amendment to the Constitution is not easy. Sharing of powers or division of powers is basic to the structure of the Constitution and cannot be changed easily. The Parliament has to pass an amendment in both the Houses with at least two-thirds majority. Then it has to be ratified by the legislatures of at least half of the total States.
- Independent courts and interpretation of the Constitution : The judiciary plays an important role in the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures. In case of any dispute about the division of powers, the High Courts and the Supreme Court decide the case.
- Independent resources : The Union and the State Governments can raise their resources by levying taxes in order to carry on the government and the responsibilities assigned to each of them.
“All the States in the Indian union do not have identical powers.” Explain.
Describe special powers or provisions for some States in India.
The Constitution of India does not grant equal powers to all States. Some States enjoy special status/powers as given below :
(1) Jammu and Kashmir :
- Under Article 370, the concurrence of the state is required for making laws in matters mentioned in thir Union and Concurrent Lists.
- Jammu and Kashmir has its own Constitution,
- Again Indians who are not permanent residents of this State cannot buy land or house there,
- Amendments to the Indian Constitution under Article 368 cannot apply without the concurrence of the J & K government.
(2) North-Eastern and smaller States have been given more representation in the Rajya Sabha. North-Eastern states such as Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram have a sizeable indigenous tribal population with a distinct history and culture which can be retained under Article 371.
(3) There are areas which are too small to become an independent State but which could not be merged with any of the existing States. Such areas are like Chandigarh or Lakshadweep or the Capital city of Delhi. These are known as Union Territories. These territories do not have powers of a state. The central government has special powers in running these areas.
(1) Pokharan, the place where India conducted its nuclear tests, lies in Rajasthan. Suppose the Govt, of Rajasthan was opposed to the Central Government’s nuclear policy, could it prevent the Govt, of India from conducting the nuclear tests ?
(2) Suppose the Govt, of Sikkim plans to introduce new textbooks in its schools. But the Union Govt, does not like the style and content of the new textbooks. In that case, does the state govt, need to take permission from the Union Govt, before these . textbooks can be launched ?
(3) Suppose the Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa have different policies on how their state police respond to the naxalites. Can the Prime Minister of India intervene and passs an order that all Chief Ministers will have to obey.
- No. Defence is a subject of national importance. Nuclear tests are related to the defence of the country. So the Rajasthan government could not prevent the Govt, of India from conducting the nuclear tests.
- Education is included in the concurrent list. Both the central and state government can make laws on this subject. According to the Constitution if the central govt, too makes a law, and if their laws conflict with each other, the law made by the Union Govt, will prevail. In this case as no law has been passed by the Central Govt., the State Govt, need not take permission from the Union Govt.
- Police is a state subject. So the states of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa can follow different policies. Prime Minister cannot intervene and pass orders to be obeyed by all Chief Ministers.
Explain democratic policies adopted by the Government of India which made it a successful federation. [CBSE 2016-17]
Why has federalism succeeded in India ? Which three policies adopted by India have ensured this success ? [CBSE 2016-17]
Explain how the federal experiment has been successful in the matter of formation of states in India.
Describe how federalism has been in practice through creation of linguistic states.
The success of federalism in India can be attributed to the nature of democratic politics in the country. This has ensured that the spirit of federalism, respect for diversity and desire for living together became a shared ideal for all. This has happened in various ways :
1. Linguistic States :
- The creation of Linguistic states was the first major test for democratic politics in India.
- In 1947 the boundaries of several states were changed on the basis of several states were changed in order to create new states.
- Some states were created to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography. These are Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand.
- State Reorganisation Commission (1956) : Under State Reorganisation Commission in 1956, the States were created on the basis of language. Many States vanished and new States came into existence.
- Creation of Haryana and Punjab : Even after the State Reorganisation Commission, the demand for creation of new States continued. In 1966, Haryana was created out of the State of Punjab.
- States on the basis of culture : Some States like Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand were created to recognise the cultural and ethnic differences.
- Success of federalism :
- Although there have been some opposition to the creation of states on the basis of language etc., the experience has proved that the country became more united,
- It has made administration more easier in smaller states,
- The spirit of federalism, respect for diversity and desire for living together has become a shared ideal.
2. Language Policy : The Constitution of India did not give the status of national language to any one language. According to Constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965. However, many non-Hindi speaking States demanded to continue the use of English, particularly in Tamil Nadu. The leaders adopted a cautious approach to avoid a Sri Lanka type situation.
It was, therefore, decided that English would continue along with Hindi for official purposes. Official Language Act provides that English would remain the official language of the country so long as non-Hindi speaking States desire. Thus, this approach has helped in avoiding confrontation with non-Hindi speaking southern states particularly Tamil Nadu. It has also strengthened the spirit of federalism.
3. Center-State Relations : The relations between Center and the States too has strengthened the federalism in India as mentioned below :
- In the beginning : The Central Government and the State Governments were controlled by one political party e., Congress. The Central Government dominated over the State Governments.
- After 1967 : When some opposition or different political parties came to power in the States, the relations between center and the states changed. The Central Government misused the powers under Article 356 of the Constitution and dismissed the governments led by the rival parties. This was against the spirit of federalism.
4. After 1990 :
- Coalition government was formed at the center.
- Regional parties became powerful in the states,
- Since no single party was able to secure majority, different parties formed alliance such as NDA and UPA.
- Under such arrangement, culture of power sharing and respect for autonomy of state governments spread in India,
- The Supreme Court too made it difficult for the Central Government to dismiss the State Governments in an arbitrary manner. Thus, federal structure has been strengthened by the coming of coalition governments. Federal power sharing has become effective and center-state relations have been strengthened. Respect for the autonomy of the states has increased.
Thus all these policies have contributed towards making Indian federalism successful.
State difference between the local government before and after the constitutional amendment in 1992.
The difference of local government in India before and after 1992 was as mentioned below :
|‘Before 1992||After 1992|
(1) There were panchayats in villages and municipalities in urban areas but these were directly under the control of the state governments. They did not enjoy independent status.
(2) Elections to local bodies were not held regularly.
(3) These bodies did not have financial resources. They were dependent on states or central government which used to grant them financial aids.
(4) There was no reservation for SC/ST/ OBGs.
(5) There was no reservation for women.
(6) There was no independent state commission to conduct elections.
(1) The state governments are required to share some powers with the local government bodies. Now local bodies got constitutional status.
(2) It is mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies. If the state govt, dissolves the panchayat before the end of its five year term, fresh elections must be held within six months of such dissolution.
(3) The state governments are required to share some powers with local government bodies.
(4) Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and executive heads of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.
(5) One-third of all positions are reserved for women.
(6) An independent State Election Commission has been created in each state to conduct panchayat and municipal elections
From above it is clear that the government tried to strengthen local governments by the 73rd and 74th amendment in 1992
Explain the major steps taken towards decentralisation for making the third-tier of government more powerful. [CBSE 2016-17]
The major steps taken towards decentralisation for making the third-tier of government more powerful as mentioned below :
- In the beginning panchayats in villages and municipalities in urban areas were setup in all the states. These bodies were, however, directly under the control of state governments. Elections to these bodies were not held regularly. They did not have resources of their own. There was thus need for a drastic step that was taken in 1992. The Constitution was amended to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.
- Main features of the provisions of the Constitutional Amendment (1992) were as mentioned
- Constitutionally mandatory to hold elections to local government bodies.
- Reservation of seats in elected bodies and executive heads for SC/ST/OBCs.
- Reservation of 1/3 seats for women.
- Creation of State Election Commission to conduct election of local bodies.
- State governments to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from state to state.
Thus third-tier of government has been made more powerful. Now elections are held regularly and financially these bodies have become better equipped.
Explain any five features of Panchayati Raj system in India. [CBSE 2016-17]
Differentiate between Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat. [CBSE 2016-17]
How is rural local government known in India ? What are its different institutions ?
(1) Rural local government is popularly known by the name panchayati raj.
(2) Its different institutions are as mentioned below :
- There is a panchayat in each village or group of villages.
- It is a council which has several ward members (panch) and a president (sarpanch).
- They are directly elected by all the adult population living in that ward or village.
- Panchayat is a decision-making body for the entire village.
- It works under the overall supervision of gram sabha.
- Gram Sabha consists of all the voters and meets twice or thrice in a year to approve the anffual budget of the gram panchayat and to review its performance.
- Panchayat samiti or block or mandal: A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form a panchayat samiti or block or mandal. The members of this body are elected by all the members of the panchayats in that area.
- Zilla Parishad : All the panchayat samities or mandals in a district constitute Zilla Parishad, whose members are elected. Members of the Lok Sabha and MLAs of that district and some other officials of other district level bodies are also its members. Zilla Parishad chairperson is the political head of the Zilla Parishad.
Which are the local bodies in the urban areas ? What is their composition ?
- The local bodies in the urban areas are municipalities or municipal committees in towns, municipal corporations in big cities.
- The members of municipal committees and municipal corporations are also elected by the people.
- Municipal Chairperson is the political head of the municipal committee. Chairperson of municipal corporation is called the Mayor.
Describe the achievements of the new system of local governments. Also mention the problems that are being faced by these bodies.
(1) Achievements : It is the largest experiment in a democracy conducted anywhere in the world. Its main achievements are as follows :
- There are now about 36 lakh elected representatives in the panchayats and municipalities etc. all over the country.
- Constitutional status for local government has helped to strengthen democracy in the country.
- There is now uniformity in local bodies across the country.
- There is a significant number of women in the local bodies.
(2) Problems : There are problems too which are as follows :
- Elections are held regularly but for gram sabhas are not held regularly.
- Many State governments have not transferred significant powers to the local governments.
- Adequate resources have not been given to them. Thus, there is still a long way to achieve the ideal of self government.
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