On this page, you will find NCERT Class 8 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 4 SST Understanding Laws will seemingly, help them to revise the important concepts in less time.
Understanding Laws Class 8 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 4
CBSE Class 8 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. Parliament is in charge of making laws.
2. Laws apply to all:
- All persons in independent India are equal before the law.
- Law cannot discriminate between persons on the basis of their religion, caste and gender.
- Rule of law means that all laws apply equally to all citizens of the country and no one can be above the law.
- Any crime or violation of law has a specific punishment as well as process through which the guilt of the person has to be established.
- In ancient India, there were innumerable and often overlapping local laws. Different communities enjoyed different degrees of autonomy in administering these laws among there own.
- System of law began to further evolve during the colonial period.
- It is believed that it was the British colonials who introduced the Rule of law in India.
- Historians have disputed this claim on several grounds.
- Sedition Act of 1870 changed the idea of sedition.
- Indian nationalists began protesting and criticising the arbitrary use of authority by the British.
- By the end of the 19th century the Indian legal profession also began emerging and demanded respect in colonial courts.
- Indian judges began to play a greater role in working decisions.
- With the adoption of the Constitution, this document served as the foundation on which our representatives began making laws for the country.
- Every year our representatives pass several laws as well as revise existing ones.
- Hindu Succession Amendment Act 2005. According to this new law, sons, daughters and their mothers can get an equal share of family property.
3. How do new laws come about?
- Parliament plays important role in making laws.
- An important role of Parliament is to be sensitive to the problems faced by the people.
- Role of citizens is crucial helping Parliament frame different concerns that people have into laws.
- From establishing the need for a new law to its being passed at every stage of the process, voice of citizen is a crucial element.
4. Unpopular and controversial laws:
- Sometimes, a law can be Constitutionally valid and hence, legal but it can continue to be unpopular and unacceptable to the people because it is felt that the intention behind it is unfair and harmful.
- In democracy like ours, citizens can express the unwillingness to accept repressive laws framed by the Parliament.
- There is a pressure on Parliament to change the law if people begin to feel that the wrong law is passed.
- If the law favours one group and disregards the other then it will be controversial and leads to conflict.
- The people who think that the law is not fair can approach the court to decide on the issue.
- The court has the power to modify or cancel laws if it finds that they don’t adhere to the Constitution.
- As a citizen one should remember that role does not end with electing our representatives.
- It is the involvement and the enthusiasm of the people that help Parliament performing representative functions properly.
Understanding Laws Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Criticise: to find fault with or disapprove of a person or thing.
Evolution: Process of development from a simple to a complex form and is often used to discuss the development of the species of plants and animals.
Sedition: This applies to anything that the government might consider as stirring up resistance or rebellion against it. In such cases government does not need absolute evidence in order to arrest persons.
Repressive: To control severely in order to prevent free and natural development or expression.