Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Class 7 History Chapter 10 Extra Questions and Answers Social Science CBSE Pdf free download are part of Extra Questions for Class 7 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Extra Questions for Class 7 Social Science SST History Chapter 10 Eighteenth-Century Political Formations.
Class 7 History Chapter 10 Extra Questions and Answers Eighteenth-Century Political Formations
Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Class 7 Extra Questions and Answer History Chapter 10 Very Short Answers Type
Why was the first half of the 18th century was significant?
First half of the 18th century was significant because many happenings occurred in the subcontinent.
Who was Nadir Shah?
Nadir Shah was ruler of Iran.
When did Nadir Shah attacked Delhi?
Nadir Shah attacked Delhi in 1739 and took away immense amounts of wealth.
How many times Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded north India?
Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded north India five times.
Who was Ahmad Shah Abdali?
Ahmad Shah Abdali was ruler of Afghan.
Name the Mughal Emperors who was assassinated?
Farrukh Siyar and Alamgir.
Who was Sa’adat Khan?
Sa’adat Khan was governor of Awadh province during the Mughal Empire.
Who was governor of Bengal province during the Mughal regime?
Murshid Quli Khan.
Who was Shivaji?
Shivaji was the founder of the Maratha Kingdom.
Who was involved in the factional politics at the Mughal court?
Ajit Singh, the ruler of Jodhpur, was involved in the factional politics at the Mughal court.
Where was new capital founded by Sawai Raja Jai Singh?
Sawai Raja Jai Singh founded his new capital at Jaipur and was given the subadari of Agra in 1722.
What do you understand by ‘rakhi’?
A system called rakhi was introduced offering protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 per cent of the produce by the Khalsa.
Who was leader of Jats who acquired control over territories situated on the west of the city of Delhi?
Churaman Jats acquired control over territories situated to the west of the city of Delhi and began dominating the region between the two imperial cities of Delhi and Agra.
n. Short Answer Questions (SA)
What did governors, subadars and zamindars do when Mughal Emperor declined?
With the decline in the authority of the Mughal emperors, the governors of large provinces, subadars, and the great zamindars consolidated their authority in different parts of the subcontinent.
Who founded Khalsa and when? Describe.
Khalsa was founded in 1699 by Guru Gobind Singh against the Rajput and Mughal rulers. Several battles were fought by Guru Gobind Singh against the Rajput and Mughal rulers, both before and after the institution of the khalsa in 1699.
Give the name of towns which were prosperous under Jats leadership.
The Jats were prosperous agriculturists and towns like Panipat and Ballabhgarh became important trading centres in the areas dominated by them. Under Suraj Mai the kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state.
How was Aurangzeb’s policy responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire?
The orthodox policies of Aurangzeb provoked Sikhs, Marathas and Rajputs against Mughal Empire and the policy of crushing rebellion in Deccan led to the decline of his empire.
What were the common features of the three (Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad) Mughal Provinces?
The common features of the three Mughal Provinces i.e. Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad are:
- They were suspicious of Mughal’s Jagirdari system;
- Their revenue collection system was different. They were connected to the revenue farmers for collection of revenue.
- They relied on rich members and merchants. They lent money to peasants and collected through their own agents.
Name the old Mughal provinces and describe them in brief.
Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad were old Mughal provinces. They were extremely powerful and quite independent, the rulers of these states did not break their formal ties with the Mughal emperor. All three states were founded by members of the high Mughal nobility who had been governors of large provinces-Sa’adat Khan (Awadh), Murshid Quli Khan (Bengal) and Asaf Jah (Hyderabad). All three had occupied high mansabdari positions and enjoyed the trust and confidence of the emperors. The two of them had zat rank of 7,000 each.
What efforts were made by the Khalsa for strengthening the Sikh community?
Under Banda Bahadur’s leadership Khalsa declared their sovereign rule by striking coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh and established their own administration between the Sutlej and the Jamuna. Banda Bahadur was captured in 1715 and executed (death sentence) in 1716. The Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called ‘jathas’ and later on ‘misls’. Their combined forces were known as the grand army i.e., dal khalsa.
Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Class 7 Extra Questions and Answer History Chapter 10 Long Answers Type
Describe about the crises faced by the Mughal in the last of 17th century.
The Mughal Empire started facing a variety of crises towards the closing years of the 17th century. These were caused by a number of factors. Emperor Aurangzeb had depleted the military and financial resources of his empire by fighting a long war in the Deccan. Under his successors, the efficiency of the imperial administration broke down and it became difficult for the Mughal emperors to keep a check on their powerful mansabdars.
Nobles appointed as governors (subadars) often controlled the offices of revenue and military administration (diwani and faujdari) as well. As the governors consolidated their control over the provinces, the periodic remission of revenue to the capital declined. In the northern and western India Mughals faced many rebellions including revolts of peasant and zamindari.
These groups were now able to seize the economic resources of the region to consolidate their positions. After Aurangzeb, Mughal were unable to arrest the shifting of political and economic authority into the hand of provincial governors, local chieftains and other groups.
Write a short note on Maratha kingdom.
The Maratha kingdom was another powerful regional kingdom to arise out of a sustained opposition to Mughal rule. Shivaji carved out a stable kingdom with the support of powerful warrior families (deshmukhs). Groups of highly mobile peasants, pastoralists provided the backbone of the Maratha army. These forces used to challenge the Mughals in the peninsula. Chitpavan Brahmanas served Shivaji’s successors as Peshwa (principal minister).
Poona became the capital of the Maratha kingdom. Under the Peshwas, the Marathas developed a very successful military organization. Malwa and Gujarat were seized from the Mughals by the 1720s.
By the 1730s the Maratha king was recognized as the overlord of the entire Deccan peninsula. He possessed the right to levy chauth and sardeshmukhi in the entire region. The frontier of Maratha domination expanded into Rajasthan, Punjab, Bengal and Orissa, Karnataka, Tamil and Telugu region in the south.
Agriculture was encouraged and trade revived. This allowed Maratha chiefs (sardars) like Sindhia (Gwalior), Gaekwad (Baroda) and Bhonsle (Nagpur) the resources to raise powerful armies. Ujjain expanded under Sindhia’s patronage and Indore under Holkar’s. These cities were large and prosperous and functioned as important commercial and cultural centres. The silk produced in the Chanderi region now founded a new outlet in Poona.
Describe religious policy and administration of Shivaji.
Religious Policy of Shivaji: Shivaji was a heartfelt Hindu but he had great respect for Islam as well as Quran and employed large number of Muslims in his army. Grants for construction of mosques were also provided by him. Thus, his religious policy was very much liberal.
Administration of Shivsyi: Shivaji was a very brave and wise warrior. His kingdom was divided into two parts:
- homeland which was under direct control and was called Swarajya.
- the territories adjacent to Mughal territories called Mughlai.
Shivaji kingdom collected two types of the taxes known as chauth and Sardeshmukhi. Prant or provinces of the empire were divided into several parganas and each pargana was consisted from various villages. The headmen of villages were called as Patel. Thus, the administrative system of Shivaji was quite well in view of the tax collection and controlling over the prant as well as kingdom.
Divide the states of 18th century into three overlapping groups.
States of the 18th century can be divided into three overlapping groups:
(i) States that were old Mughal provinces like Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad. They were extremely powerful and quite independent, the rulers of these states did not break their formal ties with the Mughal emperor.
All three sites were founded by members of the high Mughal nobility who had been governors of large provinces- Sa’adat Khan (Awadh), Murshid Quli Khan (Bengal) and Asaf Jah (Hyderabad). All three had occupied high mansabdari positions and enjoyed the trust and confidence of the emperors. The two of them had zat rank of 7,000 each.
(ii) States that had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals as watan jagirs. These included several Rajput kingdoms.
(iii) States under the control of Marathas, Sikhs and others like the Jats. These had seized their independence from the Mughals after a long-drawn armed struggle.