On this page, you will find NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 11 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes History Chapter 11 SST New Empires and Kingdoms will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.
New Empires and Kingdoms Class 7 Notes Social Science History Chapter 11
CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 11 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. Samudragupta was a famous ruler of a dynasty known as the Guptas. There is an inscription about Samudragupta on the Ashokan pillar at Allahabad.
2. This inscription is in the form of Kavya and composed by Harishena. This inscription is a prashasti which means written in praise of someone. Harishena was poet and a minister in the court of Samudragupta.
3. Samudragupta was a great warrior. In this regard, a prashasti described that many scars were present in the body of Samudragupta.
4. Prayaga (old name of Allahabad), Ujjain and Pataliputra were important centres of the Gupta rulers.
5. Samudragupta’s mother’s name was Kumara Devi. She belonged to the Lichchhavi gana. His father’s name was Chandragupta, who was first ruler of the Gupta dynasty. His title was maharaj-adhiraja.
6. Later, Chandragupta II became ruler of the Gupta dynasty who was the son of Samudragupta. His court was full of learned people. Kalidasa and Aryabhata were in the court of the dynasty. As written by Kalidasa that king and most Brahmins used Sanskrit, while other than the King and Brahmins used ‘Prakrit’ language.
7. Harshavardhana, who ruled nearly 1400 years ago, was one such ruler. Banabhatta was a poet who wrote his biography, the Harshacharita. Xuan Zang also spent a lot of time at Harsha’s court and he left detailed account of what he saw.
8. Harsha became king of Thanesar after death of his father and elder brother. His brother-in-law was the ruler of Kanauj and he was killed by the ruler of Bengal. Harsha took over the kingdom of Kanauj, and then led an army against the ruler of Bengal. He conquered both Magadha and Bengal. He tried to cross the Narmada to march into the Deccan, but was stopped by a ruler belonging to the Chalukya dynasty named Pulakeshin II.
9. During the same period, in south India, there were most important ruling dynasties—Pallavas and Chalukyas.
10. Pallavas capital was Kanchipuram. The ruling was upto the Kaveri delta. In the Pallavas ruling, there were many local assemblies called ‘sabha’ which was of Brahmin landowners. Assemblies functioned through sub-committees. These looked after irrigation, agricultural operations, making roads, local temples, etc. When there were no Brahmins, assembly was called ‘ur’ in the villages. The ‘nagaram’ was an organization of merchants.
11. The best known Chalukya ruler was Pulakeshin-II. He got the kingdom from his uncle. Claukyas capital was Aihole. The capital was an important trading centre and a religious centre with a number of temples. Reign was centered around the Raichur Doab, between the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra. Pulakeshin’s court poet was Ravikirti.
12. The Pallavas and Chalukyas frequently raided one another’s lands, especially attacking the capital cities, which were prosperous towns. Pulakeshin attacked the Pallav king, who took shelter behind the walls of Kanchipuram. But this victory was for a short time, new rulers belonging to the Rashtrakuta and Chola dynasties, took over Pulakeshin.
13. A new military system developed during the period. The leaders who provided the troops to the kings were called ‘samantas’. They were not paid by the king but were given grants of land.
14. Chinese pilgrim Fa Xian wrote that there was untouchability existing in the society.
15. Around 1400 years ago, Prophet Muhammad introduced a new religion, Islam, in Arabia. This religion spread all over word in a very short period. This laid emphasis on equality and unity of all.
New Empires and Kingdoms Class 7 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Prashasti: It is a Sanskrit word which means ‘in praise of.
Aryavarta: An area of subcontinent. During the period of Samudragupta none rulers controlled it. Later it was conquered by Samudragupa.
Dakshinapatha: The word is made of Dakshin and Path means the route leading to the south.
Genealogy: A sequence of generation is called genealogy. In other words, a step-wise record of ancestors.
Hereditary officer: When any post is transferred from one generation to another. During the Guptas reign, some important posts were hereditary.
Samanta: Samantas were military leaders. They provided army troop to the king.
Assembly: A group of people who took decisions on the matters. Sabha and ur were the assemblies of the Pallavas.
Nagaram: The nagaram was an organization of merchants and controlled by rich and powerful landowners and merchants.
Notes of History Class 6 Chapter 11 Time Period
1700 years ago: Beginning of the Gupta dynasty.
1400 years ago: The rule of Harshavardhana. Emergence of Islam in Arabia.