Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties.
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Answers should not exceed 30 words.
Who is a partisan ?
A person who is strongly committed to a party, group or faction.
What is partisanship ?
Partisanship is marked by a tendency to take a side and inability to take a balanced view on an issue.
How candidates for contesting elections are chosen in the USA and India ?
In the USA, members and supporters of a party choose its candidates. In India top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.
Which are three components of a political party ?
- The leaders
- The active members
- The followers.
State any one function of the political parties in a democracy.
Political parties contest elections by putting up their candidates.
What are the reasons for the rise of political parties ? Mention any one.
The rise of political parties is due to the emergence of representative democracies in the world.
Which country has one-party system ?
China because there is only one political party i.e., Communist Party.
What is bi-party system ?
In countries, like USA and UK, power usually changes between two main parties. It is bi-party system. Several other parties exist, contest elections and win a few seats in the elections but only the two main parties have a chance to form a government.
What is multi-party system ?
If several parties compete for power, and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others, it is multiparty system e.g., in India.
What is a coalition government ?
When none of the political parties gets majority of seats in the elections, the government is formed by various parties coming together. It is a coalition government.
What is front or alliance ?
When several parties in a multi-party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called an alliance front. For example in India there were three major alliances in 2004 elections – The National Democratic Alliance, The United Progressive Alliance and The Left Front.
What do you understand by a ‘recognised party’ ?
A party that gets some privilege such as a unique symbol and other special facilities is called a ‘recognised’ party by the Election Commission.
Which party is recognised as a national party ? [CBSE 2016]
A party that secures at least 6 per cent of the total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in four states and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognised as a national party; e.g., Indian National Congress.
Which party is recognised as a state party ? [CBSE 2016]
A party that secures at least 6 per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a state and wins at least two seats is recognised as a state party e.g., Telugu Desam.
Which are six national political parties in India ?
- Indian National Congress
- Bharatiya Janata Party
- Bahujan Samaj Party
- Communist Party of India (CPI-M)
- Communist Party of India (CPI)
- Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
Mention one regional political party in Jammu and Kashmir.
Jammu and Kashmir National Conference.
Which party is a regional political party in Haryana ?
Indian National Lok Dal.
Which are regional political parties in Goa ? Name any two.
Regional political parties in Goa are as mentioned below :
- United Goans Democratic Party.
- Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party.
In which state Trinamool Congress is a regional party and in power ?
Who was founder of Telugu Desam and in which state ?
N T Rama Rao was the founder of Telugu Desam in Karnataka.
State any one challenge that is being faced by the political parties in India.
The political parties are facing the challenge of dynastic succession. In some parties, top positions are always controlled by members of one family.
What is defection ?
Defection implies changing party allegiance from the party on which a person got elected to a legislature to a different party.
The law says that if any MLA or MP changes partied, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature.
What is an affidavit ?
Affidavit is a signed document submitted to an officer, where a person makes a sworn statement regarding her personal information.
To reduce the influence of money and criminals which order has been passed by the Supreme Court ?
The Supreme Court has passed the order under which it is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him.
Which order has been passed by the Election Commission to follow the democratic principles in the party ?
The Election Commission has passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
How people can put pressure on political parties to reform them ?
People can do this by petitions, publicity, and agitations. Ordinary citizens, pressure groups, movements and media can play an important role in this.
Name any one political party that has national level political organisation but not recognised as the national party.
Samajwadi Party, Samta Party, Rashtriya Janta Dal.
QUESTIONS OF 3/5 MARKS
Answers should he in about 80/100 words.
Why modern democracies cannot exist without political parties ?
What is the necessity of political parties in democratic politics ?
Political parties perform various functions such as contesting elections, formation of government, act as opposition party. We, therefore, need political parties in a democracy. But still question is raised why modern democracies cannot exist without political parties. The reasons for this are as mentioned below :
- In the absence of political parties, every candidate in the elections will be independent. There will be no promises, no party manifestos. People will not be able to know about the future programme/policies of the new government after the elections.
- The government may be formed but there will be no unity among the members of the legislature unless they are members of one political party.
- Elected representatives will be accountable to the voters /people of their constituency for their problems and promises made to them. No one will be held responsible for the foreign and defence policies of the country because these are decisions that are taken by majority or unanimously. The question may also be raised to whom the members will be responsible and why for national policies.
- It may be mentioned here that even during the non-party based elections to the panchayats, the parties do not contest formally but it is generally noticed that the village gets split into more than one faction, each of which puts up a ‘panel’ of its candidates. This function is performed by political parties in a democracy.
- Modern large scale societies need representative democracy which in turn need some agency to gather different views on various issues and present these to the government. This function is done by political parties. Thus, parties are a necessary condition for democracy as well as modern democracies cannot exist without political parties.
Why is one-party system not considered a good democratic government ? [CBSE2016]
What is one-party system ? What are its merits and demerits ?
(1) In some countries only one-party is allowed to control and run the government. These are called one-party system. For example in China only the Communist Party is allowed to rule.
(2) Merits :
- It helps in the establishment of stable governments.
- It helps in the fast development of the country as there are no conflicts among the classes.
- The administration becomes efficient as the powers are concentrated in the hands of party leaders.
- There is unity and discipline in the country.
- Time is not wasted in unnecessary criticism and propaganda.
(c) Demerits :
- There is no freedom of expression. No one can speak against the party.
- Democracy is eroded and one-party dictatorship is established.
- There is no respect for the views of different classes and interests.
- The administration becomes irresponsible due to lack of criticism and opposition.
- Political and social freedoms are crushed. This hinders the development of the personality.
What is bi-party system ? Describe its merits.
- Bi-party system means that there are two major political parties and the rest of the parties are less important.
- Only two main parties have a serious chance of winning majority of seats to form government.
- The examples are USA and UK.
(1) Government is more stable : The government is more stable in a bi-party system, because the majority party in the legislature forms the government and the other party acts as opposition.Coalition governments are not formed in a bi-party system. If the ruling party loses the majority in the legislature, the Cabinet tenders its resignation. In such a case the opposition forms the government. It becomes ruling party and the party which was hitherto fore the ruling party, becomes the opposition party.
(2) Formation of government is easier : In this system, the formation of the government is easier because one party gets majority and head of state invites their leader to form the government. If in any case, the majority party loses the majority support in the legislature, the other party i.e., opposition party, is invited to form the government.
(3) It ensures a strong government and continuity of policy : As there is a stable government, it can pursue a good policy continuously. The government can formulate long term plans for the welfare of the people.
(4) Responsibility can be fixed easily : In this system the government is in the hands of one party. So it can be given credit for its success and if fails on any front, it earns bad name. It is thus easy to fix the responsibility and the ruling party cannot shift responsibility to others.
(5) Constructive criticism : In this system, the opposition party indulges in constructive criticism of the government, because it knows that in case of the failure of the government, it will have to form the government. In such an eventually, it will have to remove all those defects for which it had criticised the ruling party.
(6) Commanding position of the Prime Minister : In a bi-party system, the Prime Minister enjoys the confidence of his own party. If the Prime Minister has sufficient influence on his party and if his party has sufficient majority in the legislature, he will have no difficulty in running the government.
Describe the demerits of bi-party system.
The demerits/disadvantages of the bi-party system are as mentioned below :
(1) Dictatorship of the cabinet : In a bi-party system, the dictatorship of the cabinet is established because it has the majority support in the Parliament. In such the situation the ruling party does not care much for the opposition.
(2) Limited choice before the voters : When there are only two parties before the electorate, they have to elect one even if they do not like both the parties. In this way the voter loses its freedom of choice.
(3) The prestige of the legislature is lowered : In a bi-party system, the Prime Minister with majority of his party and his influence over the party, can get the bills, budget, treaties etc. passed as he likes. In case he is not supported by legislature, he can recommend its dissolution. Therefore the legislature is a puppet in the hands of the Prime Minister.
(4) Dictatorship of the majority party : In bi-party system there is dictatorship of the majority party and it cares little for the opposition because it enjoys a majority in the legislature (Parliament).
(5) It divides the nations into irreconcilable camps : Where there are only two parties in a country, there is a great difference in their ideologies and there is a great controversy over the basic policies in the country.
(6) All shades of opinion are not represented in the legislature : Where there are only two parties, the voters have no freedom to express their views as all shades of opinion are given representation.
Define multi-party system. What are the advantages of this system ?
1. Multi-party system is that where there are more than two political parties as in India, France, Italy and Germany.
2. Advantages :
- The nation is not divided into two camps : Under multi-party system there are many types of ideologies. There is no rigid discipline among the parties. One person can leave one party and join another party of his choice.
- Parliament does not become puppet in the hands of the cabinet : Under multi-party system, sometimes a coalition government of several parties is formed. So there cannot be cabinet dictatorship. The cabinet cannot get the work done at will.
- All shades of opinion are represented in the house : In a multi-party system all shades of opinion get representation in the parliament. Views of different classes are heard in the House.
- Wider choice before the electorate : Where there are many parties, there is a wider choice before the electorate because they can cast their votes in favour of only the like-minded parties.
- The workers are more free in this system because if their own party does not care for them they can join another party of their choice.
3. Disadvantages :
- Weak government : The coalition governments are basically weak. The Prime Minister has to consult the leaders of other coalition partners. In case of differences the governments are dissolved soon.
- Indefiniteness of Policy : There is indefiniteness of the policy due to rapid change in the government. With the change of government, the policy is also changed.
- No long term planning : Due to rapid changes in the governments, long term planning is not possible. It is not in the interest of development in the country.
- Lack of administrative efficiency : In a multiple party system administrative efficiency suffers because the governments change very often.
- In this system trading in votes and formation of government undermines the political morality as has happened in our country on different occasions e.g., Ayaram Gayaram episode in Haryana.
What is a multi-party system ? Why has India adopted a multi-party system ? [CBSE2015]
Give your opinion about which party system should be adopted in a country.
- It is not possible to say which party system should be adopted in a country because party system is not something any country can choose.
- It evolves over a long time.
- It depends on the nature of society, its social and regional divisions, its history of politics and its system of elections.
- Each country develops a party system that is conditioned by its special circumstances. For example in India we have multi-party system because the social and geographical diversity in such a large country is not easily absorbed by two or even three parties. Thus, it may be concluded that no system is ideal for all countries and all situations.
Also see Question 5 above.
Give a brief description of six national parties in India.
(1) Indian National Congress :
- It is one of the oldest parties in the world,
- It was founded by A.O. Hume in 1885.
- It has played an important role in freedom struggle.
- Under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, it laid foundation for a modern India,
- It is a centrist party in its ideology,
- It supports liberalisation and globalisation,
- In the elections held in 2004, it emerged as the single largest party with 145 seats,
- In 2009 elections too the party was the single largest party securing 205 seats and headed the govt,
- In 2014 elections the party has lost power at the center.
(2) Bharatiya Janata Party :
- It was founded in 1980 by reviving the old Bharatiya Jana Sangh. It believes in India’s ancient culture and values,
- It believes in cultural nationalism or Hindustan.
- The party favours full integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India, a uniform civil code for all people in the country.
- BJP came to power in 1998 as the leader of the National Democratic Alliance but lost in 2004 elections,
- In 2014 elections BJP and its allies (NDA) have got the majority aria formed the government at the center.
(3) Bahujan Samaj Party :
- Kanshi Ram formed this party in 1984 for the welfare of bahujan samaj which included dalits, adivasis, OBCs and religious minorities,
- It was inspired from the ideas and teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and others.
- It has main base in UP, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Delhi and Punjab.
- It has formed government in UP several times with the help of other parties,
- In 2004 elections, it has won 19 seats in the Lok Sabha.
- Party is an expression of dalit
(4) Communist Party of India (Marxist) :
- Founded in 1964, it believes in Marxism- Leninism. It opposes imperialism and communalism.
- It stresses on the need for India to become self-dependent economically and to escape from the clutches of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund,
- It is critical of liberalisation of economy,
- The party has been in power for 30 years in West Bengal without a break.
- In 2004 elections, it won 43 seats in the Lok Sabha and supported the UPA government from outside.
(5) Communist Party of India :
- It was founded in 1925 and believes in Marxism- Leninism, secularism and democracy.
- It has accepted parliamentary democracy as a means of promoting the interests of the working class, farmers and the poor,
- It became weak due to split in 1964 that led to the formation of CPI(M).
- Party favours communal harmony, secularism and prevention of misuse of religious places for disruptive activities,
- The party has achieved success in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. In 2004, Lok Sabha elections, it had secured 1.4 per cent votes and 10 seats.
- It supported the UPA government from outside.
(6) Nationalist Congress Party :
- It was formed in 1999 due to split in the Congress party.
- It favours democracy, Gandhian secularism, equity, social justice and federalism,
- It advocates that high offices like Prime Minister should be confined to natural born citizens of the country,
- It is a major party in Maharashtra and coalition partner of Congress,
- It was part of UPA government at the Center.
Describe in brief the recent efforts that have been made in India to reform political parties and its leaders.
Recent efforts to reform political parties and its leaders are as given below :
(1) Anti-defection law : In India, many elected representatives started indulging in changing party allegiance from the party on which a person got elected to a different party in order to become ministers or for cash rewards. So in order to curb this tendency, anti-defection law was passed. It says that if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she will lose the seat in the legislature. Now MPs and MLAs have to obey the decisions of the party.
(2) Filing of an affidavit : The Supreme Court has made it mandatory for every candidate who contests an election to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. This has been done to reduce the influence of money and criminals.
(3) Hold organisational elections : The Election Commission has made it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns.
What is a political party ? State any two points of the ideology of BJP.
- Political Party – See Textbook Question 4.
- Ideology of BJP – See Question 7 above.
“Lack of internal democracy within parties is the major challenge to political parties all over the world.” Analyse the statement. [CBSE-2015]
See Textbook Question 2. .
“Dynastic succession is one of the most serious challenges before the political parties.” Analyse the
statement. [CBSE 2015]
See Textbook Question 2.
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