Here we are providing Class 11 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Changing Cultural Traditions. Class 11 History Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Class 11 History Chapter 7 Important Extra Questions Changing Cultural Traditions
Changing Cultural Traditions Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Mention the period in which settlement of more and more towns took place.
It was the period starting from the fourteenth century and resting at the end of the seventeenth century.
Tell the forms of material on European History?
The material on the history of Europe since the fourteenth century is found in the form of documents, printed books, paintings, sculptures, buildings, and textiles.
Who has first given the term “Renaissance” to the cultural changes in Europe during the fourteenth to the seventeenth century?
It was a scholar of nineteenth-century Jacob Burckhardt, Professor, the University of Basle in Switzerland.
What was the approach of the German historian, Leopold Von Ranke on an approach of a historian should be?
The historian should first collect documents from Government Depts. and give priority to writing about states and politics.
What was the view of Jacob Burckhardt?
He understood politics is not the limit of history writing. It is as much concerned with culture as with politics viz. these must hang in balance.
Mention the name of the book composed by Jacob?
It was “The Civilization of the Renaissance In Italy”.
What other names can you suggest to the renaissance there?
It may be a change in the concept of humanity because the culture was then understood as humanity consisting of subjects like grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy. The term humanist was considered as the master for teaching these subjects.
What will you say the virgin rise of a renaissance in Italy?
It is ascribed to its location where ports were en route to Western Europe (Spain, England, etc.), Central, East, and South Asia as also South Africa. The incessant movement of people from varied traditions and cultures thus naturally educated the Italians. Islam’s drive to create a common civilization, Eastern Europe being ruled by the Byzantine empire, reshaping a feudal bond in Western Europe all were added to trade ties and Italy took the maximum benefit of this situation by increasing the number of towns there.
Write some characteristics of Venice and Genoa cities?
- These were independent city States.
- Venice was a republic.
- These cities were different from other parts of Europe.
- These were governed by assistance from wealthy merchants and bankers.
- The idea of citizenship sprouted on a surface in these cities.
When was humanism adopted in the curriculum of universities in Italy?
It was during the fourteenth century when humanism as a college subject was accepted in the curriculum.
In what context, the law became a subject of study?
Initially, its scope was confined to courts and notaries (a combination of solicitor and record keeper) but shifted later-on to read in the context of earlier Roman Culture.
Who had labeled culture as humanism?
It was by nineteenth-century historians.
What Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola had written on the significance of debate?
In this book-“On The Dignity Of Man, Mirandola had mentioned that for the attainment of the knowledge of the truth, it is a debate that energizes the mind for stronger and more vigorous.
Mention the period of the middle ages/medieval period in the history of Europe?
It was considered a period of millennium i.e. thousand years from the fifth century to the fourteenth century. This period of thousand years had been further divided into the Dark Ages, The Early Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages respectively. The dark age had set in after the collapse of the Roman Empire i.e. a period of 500 years. The Early Middle Ages is the period of 200 years and it is that of 300 years when we talk about the Late Middle Ages.
Do you accede to the majority view of scholars that naming Dark Ages to the period of 500 years is not good?
Yes, because this way we neglect the inner stimuli which took so long period to its manifestation. Such classification or taxonomy merely on the basis of perception cannot be said well in my opinion. Instead, this period can be stated as Gestation Age.
Do you think the church could rule in the garb of the feudal system i.e. vassalage only because clergy i.e. the first order had perused the books written in Greek and Roman languages?
Yes, it was true. The books composed during the Greek and – Roman Empire had several tips on the organization of the society and ruling multi-linguistic masses in all accommodated vast empires. The clergy could extract a new formula of ruling through vassalage from the said literature on politics.
What do you understand by classical architecture?
During this period in question, Roman history was read and remains were dug up by archeologists. It inspired a new style of architecture viz a revival of the Imperial Roman Style. It was called classical architecture.
Why is Michelangallo Buonarroti famous ?
It is because of his being alone expert equally in painting, sculpture, and designer. He painted the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel for the Pope, the sculpture known as the Pieta in which Mary had been shown holding the body of Jesus and he had also designed the Duomo of Florence City.
When were the classical texts printed in Italy?
It was by 1500 CE, the texts in Latin had been printed in Italy.
What had the students in universities to do prior to printing started?
They had to read a few handwritten copies or text in the manuscript. These were insufficient to make available every student a copy of that text.
Why according to Machiavelli all men are bad and ever ready to display their vicious nature?
Such was because human desires are insatiable and he is motivated to every fair and unfair means to meet them. It is human, weakness and causes due to unbridled mind.
What is human nature according to Niccolo Machiavelli?
Human nature is a repository of positive and negative properties. The positive is praised while the negative is condemned „ by the society. The positive qualities are-Generosity, benediction, compassion, grasping while negatives are-misery, narrow¬mindedness, selfishness, hate, and cruelty.
What had been opined by Leon Batista Alberti on, architecture?
He had written that an architect in his view is that 5 professional who gets moved weights, beautifully fixed or assembled ‘ them and amassed bodies (structure) by the varied skilled and unskilled people and the same is used by mankind for shelter. His expertise in completing structure by units makes him immortal.
What was the women’s status in business families?
The women used to co-operate with their husbands in every bit of their businesses. In families of merchants and bankers, wives looked after the businesses when the male members were away at work.
What are the thoughts of Balthasar Castiglione expressed in her The Courtier?
She has defined the potentials of men and women and suggested women bear certain soft and delicate tenderness with an air of feminine sweetness in all their gestures and actions whatever they do.
What virtues does Castiglione think equally necessary for both men and women?
These are-to shun affectation, to be naturally graceful, to be well mannered, clever and prudent, to be neither proud, envious or evil tongued, nor vain-to perform well and gracefully, the sports suitable for women.
Which factors or infrastructures linked Italian towns and courts with the world beyond?
- Trade and Travel,
- Military Conquests and
- Diplomatic contacts.
What changes in the approach of the Church were brought by the students of Universities in north Europe?
They called on Christians to practice religion in the way laid down in the ancient texts of their religion and undue rituals should be discarded. They told these additions to ancient religion as dirty patches.
What evil practices were brought to light by Thomas More prevailing as per him in Christian society?
The Christian would commit an offense and then receive indulgence through clergy as propagated that surrender to clergy would make the man free from sins so committed.
What good did the translated versions of the Bible in local languages do to society?
It enables all people to understand that sins bring adversity in the life of man and indulgence through the blessing of the clergy can do nothing in protection from their evil consequences. They should, therefore, never commit any offense.
What did humanist leaders tell the princes?
They told that Donation of Constantine i.e. the document giving judicial and fiscal powers to Clergy was originally issued by the Roman emperor but later on forged by the Churchmen. Hence, they should and can withdraw that power from the Church.
What were the keywords in the Protestant Reformation movement and who was its leader?
- A person has not required to priest in order to establish contact with God.
- It is faith that guides people to the right Life and entry into Heaven or Salvation. Its leader was a young German monk, Martin Luther.
What was the approach to Salvation expressed by German reformers i.e. Anabaptists?
They told that Salvation can be attained only when all kinds of social oppression is ended. They told the masses that God has created all people as equal and they are not expected to pay taxes and had the right to choose their priests.
What did William Tyndale say in favor of Protestantism?
He stated that the clergy, with a view to maintaining their authority above the King and even above God himself; had forged the process, order, and meaning of the ancient texts particularly because it was in Greek and Latin, not accessible to the common people. He, therefore, intended to translate Bible into the mother tongue in order to lead the mass with real light.
Do you say Luther’s movement was a supporter of radicalism?
No, his views were moderate. However, radicalism had merged with the Protestant movement and started claiming the right of people to remove an oppressive ruler and to choose someone of their own liking.
What development did take place in England by virtue of the Protestant Movement?
- The rulers ended the connection with the Pope.
- The King was considered the head of the Church.
What was the belief of Christians about the earth?
They believed that the earth was a sinful place and the heavy r burden of sin made it immobile. It stands at the center of the Universe around which moved the celestial planets.
What declaration about earth did Copernicus, a scientist make?
Copernicus rebutted the elusive belief of Christian society about the earth and told that the earth including other heavenly bodies rotate around the Sun.
Why did Copernicus leave his manuscript “De RevolutionibUs (The rotation) unpublished till his death?
Copernicus was afraid of the possible reaction to his theory by orthodox or traditionalist Clergymen. This theory was just opposite to their traditional views that the earth is immovable because of the heavy burden of sin as it was defined as a sinful place.
Who had made popular the theory of the earth as part of the Solar System?
It was an astronomer Johannes Kepler who in his Cosmo graphical Mystery demonstrated that the planets move around the sun not in a circle but in ellipses.
Who had established the knowledge as distinct from belief?
It was Galileo of Italy who told that knowledge is based on observation and experiments viz. scientific process is required to know the things in their real forms. He further told that beliefs are based on hearsay, myth, concoction, and conjecture always untrue hence, bar the path of Knowledge with illusions.
What percussions do you see when Galileo told the scientific process can only lead to knowledge about one and all things?
Its percussions were seen in the form of the genesis of Physics, Chemistry, Zoology and Botony, etc. branches of natural sciences.
Mention the names of institutions opened for the promotion of natural knowledge?
These were-The Paris Academy (1670) and Royal Society, London (1662). These institutions held lectures and experiments for public viewing.
Is it good to state Renaissance as a period of dynamism and artistic creativity while the Middle ages as a period of gloom and lack of development?
No, we can not state likewise because it would mere perception and not a thorough study of the cause that took birth during the Middle ages. Italy is understood as the first place which gave birth to the renaissance where it can be traced back to the twelfth and thirteenth century when it was observing and analyzing the universal color of culture, people, occupations, etc. from its ports.
Which things had to widen the horizon of European skill?
- Classical consideration of Rome and Greece.
- Archeological discoveries,
- new techniques of navigation,
- the expansion of Islam and the Mongol conquests,
- opportunity to learn from India, Arabia, Iran, Central Asia, and China.
What was the important change that took place during the renaissance?
It was the separation of the private and public spheres of Life. As, per this change, the public sphere was meant by the area of Government and of formal religion while the private sphere was confined to the family and personal religion. Thus, a man was not simply a member of one of the three orders but he was also a person in his own right. It later- on brought the sense of equal political rights to all individuals.
What impact of the renaissance was seen in Europe?
Europe was divided or dissolved into states on a linguistic basis viz. A common language of a region declared itself as an independent state in Europe.
Changing Cultural Traditions Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Mention the names of women intellectually creative during the period of the renaissance in Europe.
The women like Cassandra Fedele and Marchesa Isabella state were educated in Latin and Greek. Fedele proved that women can also become a humanist scholar and requested every woman to: acquire humanist education. She said-Even though the study of letters promises and offers no reward for women and no dignity, every woman ought to seek and embrace these studies. Her writings bring into focus the> general regard for education in that, age.
Another Lady Isabella Este ruled the state whole her husband. was absent and the court of Mantua was framed for its intellectual brilliance.
Discuss the underlying principle presumptions constituting independent city-states in Italy.
The Government in those city-states was of democratic type as the Government of Venice city was a republic. Some others were court-cities ruled by princes. Underlying principles of constituting these city-states can be summed up as under:-
- It was an institution of Common Wealth. It was the supreme authority of the city-State through the Council.
- There was a Council constituted by members, all gentlemen of the city who had attained the age of 25 years.
Interpretation of the term Gentleman eligible to membership of the council-
(a) He should be wealthy and qualified.
(b) His Lineage must noble, not blamed, convicted, tried.
(c) Poor people if from noble lineage, can also be selected as members of Council.
Mention the major developments which took place between the period fourteenth and seventeenth centuries in the orderly timeline.
(a) Literary/Institutional/Educational Developments
- Humanism as a subject of study incorporated into the curriculum of Padua University in Italy (1300).
- University established in Florence. (1349)
- Academy of Sciences set-up in Paris (1643).
(b) Published/Translated Works
- Bible was first printed by Johannes Gutenberg, who made the printing press (1454).
- Thomas More’s Utopia was published (1516).
- Martin Luther wrote the Ninety Five Theses (1517).
- Martin Luther translated the Bible into German (1522).
- Andreas Vesalius wrote on Anatomy (1543).
- Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica published (1687).
- Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales published (1390).
- Brunelleschi designs the Duomo in Florence (1436).
- Leonardo Da Vinci paints The Last Supper (1495).
- Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel Ceiling (1512).
- Portuguese mathematicians calculate latitude by observing the sun (1484).
- Columbus reaches America (1492).
- Gerhardus Mercator prepares a cylindrical map of the earth (1569).
- Gregorian Calendar introduced by Pope Gregory XIII (1582).
- William Harvey links the heart with blood circulation (1628).
- Petrarch was given the title of poet Laureate in Rome (1341).
- Ottoman Turks defeat the Byzantine ruler of Constantinople (1453).
- Anglican Church established in England with the King as its head (1559).
- Peasants uprising in Germany (1525).
Locate Venice on the map of Italy and look at G.Bellni’s paintings. How would you describe the city and in what ways was it different from a Catherdral town?
Venice is in the vicinity of Padua where a university was set up in Italy. This city is on the coast side of the Adriatic sea. As we see in the painting made by G. Bellini under the title-“The Recovery Of The Relic Of The Holy Cross”, there were multi-story buildings duly ventilated as we observe a number of windows around them. There are chimney-like structures in every building. We see roads and lakes between the rows of these buildings. There were ponds, well decorated on which boats had been rowed. People used to gather around the ponds and enjoy rowing, squatting, and discussing their day-to-day businesses. Here we see no market place in the lanes or streets passing between the buildings.
Cathedral towns were settled on the ruins of the towns of the Roman Empire. These Cathedrals were built by Churches from the money contributed by rich merchants. Actually, large Churches belonging to Monasteries were called Cathedrals. The area around … these Cathedrals became popular because they had become the center of pilgrimage. Gradually, grand towns were settled around these – churches. There was a town square, a church, roads where merchants built shops and homes, an office or auditorium where the people. governing the town could meet and discuss the issues. There was high sense constructed around these towns with several gates for entrance and exit. There were parks, shady trees, playgrounds, and bridges to cross the ditch which was dug for defense around these towns.
Describe the different scientific elements in the work of sixteenth-century Italian artists.
Following facts we can mention herein, that confirm the different scientific elements in the works of Italian artists-
1. As a professor at Padua University, Andreas Vesalius had dissected the human body till then, the artists went to the laboratory of that university and studied skeleton there. They started working after study of the right structure of a man.
2. Fragments of art discovered from the ruins of the Roman empire became helpful to the Italian artists as perfectly proportioned men and women were sculpted in them. On the basis of this study, one of the sculptors Donatello made lifelike pictures in 1416.
3. Leonardo da Vinci, a botanist, Physiologist, the mathematician was also an artist. He has painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper.
His self-portrait given in this theme is vibrant and catchy. Hence, scientist’s involvement help in the development of artifacts.
4. Scientist taste in arts like sculptures naturally had to emerge life-like vibrancy in the artifacts like The Pieta by Michelangelo, Praying hands drawn by Durer, etc.
5. They understood respect in Geometric designs and they understood changing the quality of light. Their pictures acquire a three-dimensional quality.
Conclusion-Thus, we observe that anatomy, geometry, physics, and moreover, conscience to understand the beauty in its immortal form were the ingredients to Italian art.
Compare the aspirations for women (Fedele) and by a man (Castiglione). Did they have only a weapon of a particular class in mind?
Aspirations for Women (Fedele)
- She had advocated the need for the promotion of education among women.
- She criticized the definition of freedom as it was in the constitution of republic city-states. Eg. Venice because had favored the desires of men over those of women.
- She advocated humanist education and wished the women to acquire that education.
- She stated-“Even though theoretically, women are understood broader figure than that of men, practically, no regard is seen for women in European society. Hence, women should come up at the surface and by virtue of educating them in Humanist Education acquire their respected place in the society.”
Aspirations for Women by a man Castiglione
- Women are of different ways, manners, words, gestures, and bearing more than men. They, therefore, take over the portfolio of a certain soft and delicate tenderness, feminine sweetness in every gesture (while moving, staying) and in all activities they do.
- He condemns women’s mimicry or coping of men. He thinks her portfolio is different in anatomy and actions.
- He also considers that virtues like simplicity, generosity, etiquette, prudence and witty, politeness, tolerance, industrious, benevolent glue this common difference between the man and woman. These are; equally necessary in both males and females.
Thus, Balthasar Castiglione, the author of ‘The Courier’, condemns r rivalry between men and women owing to sex difference. He wants to refer that both are like wheels of life carriage and live with maintaining the proportionate difference between but it should not be made a cause for discrimination. Nature itself has bestowed one with delicacy and the other with a robust and sturdy body. This structure should be maintained with a matching soul and its manifestation.
What were the issues on which the Protestants criticized? the Catholic Church?
Catholic Church in criticism by Protestants
- According to William Tyndale, the clergymen had still not made available copies of the Bible in their mother tongue because they were t intended to keep them still in dark.
- This they had done so that they might sit in the conscience of the mass through vain superstition and false doctrine to satisfy their proud ambition to bag honor from them above the King and even above God.
- Martin Luther was the leader of the Protestant Reform movement. He said a person needn’t priests to establish contact with God. It is the faith of God that can guide the people to the right life and entry into heaven.
- The Church had held supreme power i.e. First Order while no specific portfolio it had in the ruling.
- Some radical opinion was that God has created all people as equal. Hence, they have the right to choose their priest and there is no need to pay taxes to the Catholic Church.
- As Head of the Catholic Church (i.e. Pope) had failed in performing its duty to the masses, the King should be made the head of Church in his place/state and not the Pope.
- Monasteries had been indulged in corrupt practices by the fourteenth century in Europe.
Why would Copernicus have kept as a secret his life-long, the theory telling the true position of the earth?
The emotion of fear is actually the first barrier that has crippled the progress of mankind in History. It is perhaps due to ignorance or evasive trend towards facts of life and death, both invariable. No doubt, Copernicus was a scientist and thinker of the renaissance period; his attachment to status, position in Christian society restricted him to get the real theory published in his lifetime. Had he shown adventure, the Christian world would have known the truth earlier and gas salary ended earlier than it had removed. This fear of individual life had thus, prevented Copernicus from a good deed for mankind. He wanted to live a life in comfort but the publication of his theory would have annoyed the First Order in Europe (i.e. clergy) resulting in the loss of them all.
He could assign his manuscript De Revolutionibus (The Rotation) to Joachim Rheticus, one of his followers. It says-“The planets including the earth, rotate around the sun.” The illusory statement of clergymen on the same fact was-“The earth is a sinful place and the heavy burden of sin made it immobile. It stands at the center of the universe around which moved the planets” viz. Earth was understood immovable and at the center of Encircumbulating all other heavenly bodies around it.
We see prima facie contradictions in both theories. It would have certainly robbed worldly comforts as also of the loss of life hence, Copernicus deliberately had caged the truth.
How many aims could conclude the dynamism of earth to the extent this fact was accepted by society and we read about them in our science books?
The first and foremost astronomer was Copernicus who gave an observation that planets including the earth rotate around the Sun.
The second brain was that of Johannes Kepler (author of Cosmographical Mystery) who said-“Planets move around the sun not in circles but in ellipses”.
The third brain was that of Galileo Galilei (author of The Motion) who stated-“Solar family constitutes several planets and sub-planets including earth revolving around the sun”.
Thus, the fact that of earth’s being rotatory planet i.e. Blue Star was confirmed by three brains at distinct periods of time hence, we now read this fact and understand it easily.
What do you understand by the scientific revolution in Europe during the period of the renaissance?
It was the phenomenon of understanding knowledge and’ belief in their true meaning. It gave the human mind power of logic and not an easy acceptance of things under common or orthodox assumptions. Actually, the author like Galileo remarked that Bible lights the road to heaven but does not say how heaven works. These scientists told that belief is orthodox, sophistication, indiscreet state of mind while knowledge is a product of observation and experiments thoroughly for a longer period. Hence, acquire knowledge through inquisitiveness of mind. In the minds of skeptics and no-believers, God began to be replaced by nature hence, natural sciences like physics, chemistry, and biology expanded rapidly.
Conclusion-On the basis of a human inquisitive mind equipped with logic, natural things were taken for deep observation and experiments thereby revival of knowledge; it was all true to say the renaissance was a period of the scientific revolution.
Will you say the renaissance confined to Europe during the period from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century?
No, we cannot describe it as a period of renaissance only confined to Europe because Asia and Africa almost in full were connected with Europe during the period in question. A number of sea and terrestrial routes were till then discovered and maritime trade was in its youth. It is true that Europe could attain cultural changes by the classical civilization of Rome and Greece but technologies and skills in Asia had moved ahead of what the Greeks and Romans had known. Thus, we can state that the Europeans have not learned just from the Greeks and Romans, but from India, Arabia, Iran, Central Asia, and China also. It is a universal fact that papyrus was first invented in China and then paper making technique had spread to European cities.
On the above basis, we would like to state that renaissance in; Europe is owed to renaissance much before sprouted but not described in pages of history due to Europe-centred view-point of historians in ‘ Asia and Africa. Apart from the expansion of maritime trade, the expansion of Islam and the Mongol conquests gave Europeans the opportunity to see ‘ and they learned the technologies discovered earlier in Asia.
What do you understand by Private and Public spheres of Life? Explain.
The private sphere of life is consisting of the family and personal religion while the public sphere meant the area of government and of formal religion. These two spheres became separate during the period between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries. An individual was not simply a member of one of the three orders but he was also a person in his own right. He was not just a member of the guild but he was known for himself. It subsequently became a basis for the principle that all individuals had equal political rights.
Do you agree with Albrecht Durer’s statement that Art is embedded in nature, he who can extract it, has it? Justify your answer with illustrations?
Yes, Albrecht Durer is nil correct in stating art’s dwelling in nature. Nature in its physical sense, we observe; embeds in it, beautiful landscapes, landforms, vegetation with changing seasons, water bodies including ponds, fountains, springs, rivers, rivulets, and oceans of different size and shape, the flora and fauna, varied altitudes of mountains and hillocks, isle, island, etc. In its metaphysical sense, it embeds resipiscence, power of imagination, gregarious spirit, dedication and devotion, loyalty, dutifulness, etc. a number of virtues.
It depends, however, on the individual, how he can glorify his actions by positive views of his own nature with that of nature in its physical forms. In case, the artist applies his physical, mental and emotional, powers duly balanced and motivated by inner conscience, the imagination will excel and proposed art gets acclamation from the masses.
Whether Jacob Burckhardt, Professor at the University of Basle in Switzerland is correct in saying that history is as much concerned with culture as with politics? Explain.
Culture during the period of 14th to 17th century in Europe was considered as humanities as used by a Roman lawyer and essayist Cicero. It was derived from the Latin wood humanities. Grammar, law, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy were the subjects of humanity. Discussion and debates were stated necessary to develop knowledge in these subjects. Here we see that all these subjects are made for society and rules for ideal living, these all contain in themselves. Politics itself tells the processes of social organization and leadership which is possible only when culture is studied and a smooth link between both is established.
In brief, we can conclude that History itself is both the story of culture and politics. Culture determines which type of governance is possible at the material time and the ruler skilled in culture can only lead the mass. History tells about the education, manners, standard of living, customs, and traditions all incorporated in culture. It simultaneously enables us to know about the government, organization of society during a specific period of time.
Imagine that why would eligibility for membership to Council under the institution of the commonwealth has confirmed to gentlemen of the City, State in Italy?
A cursory perusal of the commonwealth and government of Venice composed by Cardinal Gas Paro Contarini reveals that only gentlemen who had attained the age of 25 years, were made eligible to the Council and common people were denied membership. Here common people were understood as those ignobly born, poor, and the people very rude and anti-social. It means cruel, unsober, insolvent, misconduct, loose-character people were deemed as common people.
Their instincts and nature are always unchangeable and nothing else but only disruption in Council, they would have made. Hence, they were denied membership. I would like to describe this criterion of selection of members to Council, the major cause of renaissance which developed from the city-states of Italy. Modem democracy is owed to the city-states however, only seeming or virtual appearance has corrupted this system to the extent, here has emerged criminalization of politics in India. Thus, we see citizenship approach had sprouted in Italy. ^
Write an essay on the Universities in Europe during 14th to 17th century.
The genesis of the approach to open universities in Italy was the growth of trade and commerce there. Commerce being the chief activity in the city, demand for lawyers and notaries had been spurt up. They were required to write and interpret rules and written agreements. Later on, Francesco Petrarch had brought change because, by his efforts, the law was studied in the context of earlier Roman Culture. Thus, education program or curriculum in universities incorporated, the subjects of humanities till then, known as culture.
These subjects were grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy. The teachers teaching these subjects were addressed as a humanist. These subjects were not drawn from or connected with religion and emphasized skills developed by individuals through discussion and debate. Extracting the approach of Plato and Aristotle, a humanist of Florence Mirandola states that as bodily energy is strengthened by gymnastic exercise, so beyond doubt in this wrestling place of letters, as it were, the energy of mind becomes far stronger and more vigorous. Thus, he states debates as wrestling-place of letters and considers their necessity for making the mind far stronger and more vigorous.
Conclusion-Addition of humanities to the curriculum of University coincide study of law had made the city-states and court- cities in Italy, more progressive and prosperous. We see the well-planned cities of Venice and Florence. Dante Alighieri had written on religious themes and Giotto had painted lifelike portraits in Florence which gradually made that city intellectual and a center of artistic creativity. The term Renaissance often used to describe a person with many interests and skills like Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo.
‘Models of painting as found in Italy are the most catchy’. Why?
The artists in Italy were experts in more than one art. For instance, Leonardo Da Vinci was a botanist, physiologist, Mathematician, and painter, all in one. Similarly, Michelangelo Buonarroti was a Painter, Sculptor, and designer. Leonardo Da Vinci had painted Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. He had invented the flying machine also.
Buonarroti painted the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel, made a sculptor “The Pieta” (in which Mary is holding the body of Jesus) and he himself had designed the dome of St. Peter’s Church. One more person i.e. Filippo Brunelleschi was an architect and sculptor both. He had designed the Duomo of Florence. –
The reasons for being Italian art catchy are thus, all apparent. Firstly because it got the hands of scientists and mathematicians. Knowledge of Geometry helped them to understand the perspective and that by noticing the changing quality of light, their pictures acquired a three-dimensional quality. Secondly, they used oil as a medium for painting which gave the greatest richness of color to paintings than before. We can observe the influence of Chinese and Persian art on these paintings. It could possibly due to the Mongol invasion and expansion of their empire.
Why is Italian architecture in sixteenth-century appear the most excellent and admiring?
We can give the following reasons for that excellence in architecture-
- They (Architects) copied many features of Imperial Roman buildings which were till then carefully excavated by the archaeologists.
- Architects were skilled in science, mathematics, geometry, etc. subjects.
- Wealthy merchants and Pope had patronized the architects and incentives as also perks were provided with them.
- Architects were trained in classical Roman architecture and that of Chinese and Persian arts.
- Archaeologists excavated the ruins of palaces, attics of the Roman style, and architects studied them in-depth.
- As artists were known individually, by name hence, it inspired them more to exhibit their specialty in architecture.
Do you ascribe the printed books as major aspects of bringing renaissance in Italy? Explain.
Yes, the availability of promoted books increased the pace of the renaissance in Italy. 150 copies of the Bible were first printed in the workshop of Johannes Gutenberg, the German who set-up the first printing press. Prior to that, texts existed in a few handwritten copies which could be read-only by the noble and wealthy merchants.
With the installation of the printing press, a number of universities and school’s set-up and scope of the curriculum had been enhanced. There was no dearth of textbooks, the translated versions of ancient Roman and Greek literature on science, architecture, language, Mathematics, moral Philosophy, etc. As printed books became available, it was possible to buy them and students did not have to depend solely on lecture-notes. Thus, ideas, opinions, and information moved more widely and more rapidly than before. This developed the reading habits among people.
When the printing facility increased, the number of authors began to increase also. Authors on the concept of humanity like Francesco Barbara and Lorenzovalla. In his-On Pleasure, Valla criticized the Christian’s injunction against pleasure and stressed prudence, good manners in dress, and acquisition of education in good culture. There were developed women, writers, also. Venetian Cassandra Fedele, Marchesa of Mantua, and Isabella d’Este were pioneers among them. These writers emphasized women’s education and empowerment.
Conclusion–On the basis of the above points, the contribution of books to Italian society is all apparent and the renaissance was brought to Italy with the help of books on several subjects including humanism, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, law, moral philosophy, religion, politics, natural sciences, etc.
What were the revolutionary ideas of Petrarch and what they did?
According to Petrarch, antiquity was a distinctive civilization that could be best understood through the actual words of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
These revolutionary ideas inspired the archaeologists in the excavation of remains in Rome. It brought a new style of architecture. The classical books were translated into local languages and thus, public awareness was created. The clergymen were known to Roman and Greek Literature but they had not made these widely known to masses. So deciphered books brought real light to the masses and they protested the Church under the flag of the Protestant Reform movement led by Martin Luther. A humanist writer of Florence, Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola inspired the public to acquire knowledge through discuss and debates. A number of universities were established and subjects of humanities were added to their curriculum.
Why did the humanists divide the middle ages dr the medieval period of a millennium in the Dark Ages, The Early middle ages, and the late middle ages?
According to the humanists, the dark age had set-in after the collapse of the Roman empire in the fourth century. They enumerated a period of 500 years under the Dark Ages. This was the reason, the later historians assumed that the new age had begun in Europe from the fourteenth century. They argued that in the Middle Ages, the Church had pressed humans to forget all the learning of the Greeks and Romans. It had introduced the system of vassalage or Feudal System in order to enjoy first order in the society.
‘Multilingual translation of the works of Greek writers on one hand and that of Arabic and Persian on other European languages had helped in the transmission of science and technology:- Do you agree to this statement?’
Yes, we agree with the above statement because there were books on subjects like administration, mathematics, moral philosophy, grammar, and poetry but beyond the reach of common people. The Church was not willing to propagate its actual contents in order to maintain its supremacy. However, in the fourteenth century, they get translated by Arab people in the Arabic language which could be easily understood by the masses. Some Europeans, just after perusal of these books in the Arabic language, retranslated them in the local languages of Europe.
Muslim writers were Ibn Sina, Al-Razi, and Ibn Rushd. An Arab philosopher Ibn Rushd had tried to resolve the tension between philosophical knowledge and religious beliefs. His methods were adopted by Christian thinkers. Thus, the translation of books in several languages helped in the promotion of science and technologies not only in Italy but in all other parts of Europe also.
Give a brief account of the new concept of human beings.
- It was against the control of religion over human life.,
- Acquisition of material wealth, power, and glory is a usual instinct of human beings and cannot be tantamounted to vice.
- The study of history leads a man to strive for a life of perfection hence, Christian injunction against pleasure is untenable.
- A person of culture should learn good manners including politeness and simplicity.
- Individuals irrespective of poor and weak are capable of shaping through other means.
- Self-interest is the most powerful motive hence, a cordial and congenial environment for the proliferation of self-interest should be provided to the people.
Give a brief account of woman status in Europe during 14th to 17th century.
- Women were given no political rights.
- Families were dominated by husbands.
- Money obtained in dowry was invested in the family businesses but women had no say in how that business should run.
- If the father could not arrange to suffice dowry, his daughter would go to the convent to live the life of a nun.
- They were keepers of the households without any public role given to them.
Thus, on the above points, we can state that the patriarchal system was strictly followed in Europe in whom, women were treated as mere instruments in the hands of their husbands without any right in property and role in public life.
Do you think all women in Europe during the period 14th to 17th century were equally neglected? If not, describe the social and family status of other women?
We would like to state here that the position of women in families of merchants and bankers was somewhat different than those of common women in the society. In these families, women used to work as partners to the firm or business and made responsible to look after the businesses when the male members were away at work.
A few women in European society were intellectually more creative and sensitive about the importance of humanist education. One among these women, Cassandra Fedele wished to see all women duly educated in humanism. She had stated-“Even though the study of letters promises but offers no reward for women and no dignity”. That lady was proficient in Greek and Latin and was invited to give orations at the University of Padua in Italy.
She criticized the constitution of republics in which women’s freedom was hanged on the desires of men. Another woman was the Marchesa of Mantua, Isabella d’Este who ruled the state while her husband was absent and the small state of Mantua proliferated under her skilled administration. These women writers wished economic power, property, and education to women so that they could make their respected place in men dominated society of Europe.
What were the percussions of a new culture of humanism all over the world from Italy? Discuss.
The new culture of humanism spread all over the world because of trade and travel, military conquests and diplomatic contacts of each two countries as routes of them pass through Italian towns and courts. The different response it could bag from diversified institutions which we can mention as under:-
(a) Churches-In north Europe, the members of the Church summoned Christians to practice religion in the way laid down in the ancient texts of their religion discarding undue rituals. They told them additions made to the simple religion.
The philosophers there declared that Almighty has allowed man to live with complete freedom in the pursuit of happiness. Humanists like Thomas More and Erasmus of England and Holland respectively assumed Church’s role as extortionist simple and common people. Clergy would say the devotee, fill my bag and attain to indulgences against whatever crime/offense you have committed. Such practice was not allowed in religion in its original and simple form.
(b) Rebels and movements-Taxes imposed by Church were protested by peasants. Church’s interference with state matters, restricted the princes. Emperor would issue the document pertaining to the donation of Constantine under his own discretion-was the demand of resented Christians.
Martin Luther, a monk-led the Protestant Reformation movement against the Catholic Church voicing no need for priests in divine matters and it is faith that guides the course of life and to salvation. Luther’s ideas were popularised by Ulrich Zwingli and Jean Calvin.
Radicals protested under the stimulus of Salvation, a state where oppression is ceased in full.
A scholar like William Tyndale in course of Bible translation, stated frankly that it was a trick of clergyman not to make available, the scriptures translated in local languages to the mass with malicious intention to keep them in dark and fill their head and heart with rules, laws, canons fabricated by Clerics for their advantage.
- Catholic Church allowed protestants to worship as they choose.
- The illiterate section of society was driven with the same whip.
- King or Queen became the head of the Church. Pope’s supremacy ended.
- Society of Jesus set-up in an attempt to face Protestants by Ignatius Loyola in Spain.
Changing Cultural Traditions Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Why would have this theme named Changing Cultural Traditions? Find the reasons in context with several developments that took place during the 14th to 17th centuries in European society? Would you say it Renaissance or circumstantial regression and revival of cultural pursuit?
We would like to state that Italy has been acted as the axil or nucleus to accumulate all traditions and political set-up all over the world, particularly Asia and Africa and the rest parts of Europe; in its vision and sprout with conclusive cream aspects of them all. Italy got this opportunity because of passing all maritime and terrestrial routes through it.
The major developments mutely observed by Italy i.e. the place of emergence of renaissance all over world were-vassalage in Western Europe, its unification and the Latin Church, Eastern Europe under the Byzantine Empire, and Islam’s missionary zeal to create a common civilization.
A model had formed in Italy with changes in cultural tradition and then transmitted to all over the world. Therefore, the title of the theme is consistent with the content.
(A) Structure and Features of city-states in Italy-
- Independent city-states and city courts constituted in Italy.
- Some were republics while some others were court-cities like Mantua.
- Commonwealth was the government with Councils constituted by gentlemen, noble and ennobled who had attained 25 years ago.
Result-A foundation stone of democracy, however, appeared impliedly.
(b) Humanism in University Curriculum-
- Universities set-up in Padua and Bologna.
- Law was the main subject in order to module lawyers and notaries to satisfy the increasing demand
- Humanities derived from the Latin term Humanitas and understood as a culture.
- Humanist has understood in the meaning a teacher who taught grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy.
- These subjects were added to the curriculum of Universities.
- Discussion and debates in order to gain expertise on these subjects made mandatory.
- Similarly, observation and experiment with the things in order to known reality about them were made essential or compulsory.
1. Debate and discussions on humanity and observation and experiments with issues/things/topics trained the authors like Giovanni. Pico Della Mirandola (On The Dignity of Man), Cardinal Gasparo Contarini (The Common Wealth and government of Venice), Dante Alighieri (religious themes), Artists like Giotto (child Jesus, Assisi), The Pieta sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarroti, Filippo Brunelleschi, etc. The humanists who grew in that period were-Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola, Francesco Petrarch, Venetian Cassandra Fedele, Isabella d’Este, Martin Luther, Thomas More, Erasmus, Ulrich Zwingli, and Jean Calvin.
2. There were people like Leonardo da Vinci, experts in astronomy, painting, architect, and sculpture simultaneously. On account of an inquisitive mind and congenial atmosphere of discussion and debates on subjects of humanities in Universities.
3. Printing Press was installed and it facilitated the study environment. Science academies, schools, and colleges increased in numbers.
4. Classical or Roman and ancient Greek literature on medicine, physiology, religion, theology, and law got translated in Arabic and Persian and then in local languages of Europe. It created public awareness of true religion. It resulted in sheer criticism of the Church, shifting of taxation power to King/Queen, monarchy in place of Churchs, supremacy took place.
5. Peasants movements and Protestant Reform Movement was launched.
6. Radical Protestants took the meaning of salvation, a state when all kinds of suppressions are ended.
7. Church agreed to allow protestants to worship of lord in their own manner.
8. The church accepted the subordination of the King.
9. Women humanists like Cassandra Fedele and Isabella d’Este advocated women’s rights equal to men and emphasized women’s education.
10. Quotations, musings by painters, books on humanities, and natural sciences all are ascribed for Changing Traditions.
11. Classical architecture came into existence owing to excavations by archeologists, the sites of the Roman empire, and towns of that period.
12. Technologies and science were contributed by India, Central Asian countries, China, North Europe, and African countries owing to the growth of trade, travel, and commerce as also Mongol conquests, etc.
13. Separate recognition of the public sphere and private spheres of human life. Individual identity got recognition besides constitutional (i.e. guild, profession, government, and any other organization) identities.
14. Europe dissolved into smaller states on a linguistic basis. A separate sense of identity was thus, understood on the basis of language.
Conclusion-Education is also an integral part of culture having infinite potentials. In the root of cultural changes, we observe systematic promotion of education through ancient Greek and Roman literature on science, administration, religion, architecture, sculpture, painting, etc. during the period in question in Europe? countries symbolized by Italy and her city-states with CommonWealth governance. In brief, it was a phenomenon of education in humanities and natural sciences.
Renaissance or Circumstantial regression and revival of Cultural pursuit-It was actually circumstantial regression and revival of cultural pursuit because vassalage or feudal system and its modified form (i.e. new monarchy) subsequently, have reached the climax and common people had shown annoyance to the system. Churches, monasteries, Cathedrals, Benedictine Churches; all were exporting wealth from the peasants and serfs. Their, interference in the stately affair became intolerable to the princes. Corruption was increased and common people were exploited brutally. The gross effect of that circumstance could be seen in the constitution of city-states in republic and people became curious to know religion in its real form. It stimulated translation of Bible in Local languages, humanities added to university and school curriculum and thus, all ingredients, to changing cultural traditions, were formed.