Bakeshop Formulas and Equipment
Reading Guide
Stay Engaged One way to stay engaged when reading is to turn each of the headings into a question, then read the section to find the answers. For example, "Use a Balance Scale" might be, "How do you properly use a balance scale?"
Content Vocabulary
• percentage
• convection oven
Read to Learn
Key Concepts
• Explain baking formulas.
• Describe the function of various bakeshop equipment.
• Identify bakeshop tools.
Main Idea
Baking requires precise measurement and accuracy to achieve a good result. It also requires special baking equipment to produce professional quality products.
Graphic Organizer
As you read, use this chart to list the three different types of ovens used in bakeshops and their characteristics.
Academic Vocabulary
^ English Language Arts
NCTE 5 Use different writing process elements to communicate effectively.
1 Mathematics
NCTM Number and Operations Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
NCTE National Council of Teachers of English
NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NSES National Science Education Standards
NCSS National Council for the Social Studies
Type of Oven 
Characteristics 
Graphic Organizer Go to this book's Online Learning Center at glencoe.com for a printable graphic organizer.
basic ingredients: flour, liquids, fat, sugar and sweeteners, eggs, leavening agents, and flavorings. You will learn more about these ingredients in Section 26.2. The difference between two baked products is often the proportion of each ingredient in the formula. If the proportions are off, you will end up with a different product or an unacceptable product. That is why it is important to read through a formula several times to make certain you understand all of the instructions.
It is also important to add ingredients in the exact order specified in the formula. Remember, you cannot make adjustments once an item goes into the oven. A baked product's ingredients must be measured accurately from the start.
Bakeshop Measurements
Bakeshop ingredients are measured by weight or volume. Volume is the space an ingredient occupies. Weight measures the mass or heaviness of something. These two
Bakeshop Formulas
Baking is an exact science that requires precise measuring and accuracy. Baking also requires the use of special baking equipment and smallwares to produce professional products. The type of equipment found in a bakeshop is customized for that particular operation. The size of the operation and how many baked goods it produces will determine the need for specific equipment and tools.
Although you may add a dash of this and a pinch of that when you make a pot of chili, you will never use such imprecise, or inexact, measurements in a commercial bakeshop. A baker uses a formula. This is a recipe that includes the exact amount of each ingredient. These amounts are often listed as percentages of the total formula. The success of a formula is determined in large part by accurate ingredient measurement and following instructions carefully.
Accuracy is crucial in baking because most baked products are made from the same methods of measurement often produce very different results. For example, if a formula calls for 8 ounces of flour, you cannot substitute 1 cup of flour. Assuming that 8 ounces is the same as 1 cup can ruin the final product.
Because accurate and consistent measurement is so important, bakers tend to weigh most ingredients on a balance scale. Bakers refer to weighing as scaling. Many of the dry ingredients used in baking, such as flour, are easily and accurately weighed. Liquid ingredients, such as eggs and milk, can also be weighed, but are sometimes measured. Corn syrup, honey, and molasses are always weighed. Measuring ingredients by weight gives consistent, reliable results.
Use a Balance Scale
Professional bakers use a balance scale or a digital electronic scale to measure ingredients for a baked good formula. When you use a balance scale, it must balance before and again after you use it.
To properly use a balance scale, follow these steps:
1. Place the scale scoop or container on the left side of the scale. You can also use waxed paper if the ingredient amount is small.
2. It is important to compensate for the weight of the scoop or container. Do this by placing pound weights on the right side of the scale and adjusting the ounce weights on the horizontal bar until the left and right sides balance. Once this is done, you can measure ingredients.
3. To get a specific amount of an ingredient, add weights to the right side of the scale that equal the desired weight of the ingredient. You may have to make adjustments using the scale and the ounce weights on the horizontal bar.
4. Add the ingredient to the scoop, container, or waxed paper on the left side of the scale until the scale is balanced.
Gourmet Math
The Baker's Percentage
The baker's percentage allows you to change the yield of a formula without changing the quality of the final product. You first need to calculate the weight of flour for the new yield. Then, multiply each ingredient's baker's percentage by the new flour weight to find the new weights for each ingredient.
Convert the formula for Quick Coffee Cake below to yield a total of 10 pounds.
Ingredient 
Amount 
Baker's Percentage 
Pastry flour 
1 lb., 12 oz. 
100% 
Whole eggs 
10 oz. 
36% 
Vegetable oil 
12 oz. 
43% 
Water 
1 lb., 8 oz. 
86% 
Baking powder 
1 Va oz. 
4% 
Dried milk solids 
3 oz. 
11% 
Salt 
/ oz. 
2% 
Granulated sugar 
1 lb., 8 oz. 
86% 
TOTAL 
6 lbs., 6 % oz. 
368% 
tfBfl^SSfc Equivalent Weights There are 16 ounces in 1 pound. Convert pounds to ounces by multiplying by 16. Convert ounces to pounds by dividing by 16, writing the remainder as ounces. For example, 20 ounces equates to 1 pound, 4 ounces.
Starting Hint Convert the new yield to ounces: 10 pounds X 16 = 160 ounces. Because the baker's percentages remain the same, you know that in the new formula, 160 ounces is 368% of the weight of flour. Thus, you can calculate the new flour weight by dividing 160 ounces by 368% (160 ^ 3.68). Then, find the new weight of each of the other ingredients by multiplying their percentages by the new weight of the flour. Round all weights to the nearest one.
NCTM Number and Operations Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
Use Math Skills
Bakers often convert an entire formula to make the desired number of servings.
^ J Professional Mixers A bench mixer usually comes with three attachments: a spiral dough hook, a flat beater, and a whip. When would you use the spiral dough hook?
What if a cake formula makes five 8inch cakes, but the bakeshop where you work needs to make 10 cakes?
Original 
New  
Formula 
Formula  
(Five 8inch; 
(10 8inch;  
Cakes) 
Cakes)  
2 lbs. 
egg whites 
4 lbs. 
12 oz. 
cake flour 
1 lb., 8 oz. 
12 oz. 
confectioners' 
1 lb., 8 oz. 
sugar  
V oz. 
cream of 
y2 oz. 
tartar  
1 lb., 4 oz. 
granulated 
2 lbs., 8 oz. 
sugar  
V8 oz. 
salt 
V oz. 
V oz. 
vanilla extract 
y2 oz. 
V8 oz. 
almond 
V oz. 
extract 
eggs are cracked, this means that 5 out of 100 eggs are cracked. Formulas are often expressed in baker's percentages. A baker's percentage means that each ingredient is a certain percentage of the weight of the total flour in the formula. The weight of flour is important because it is the core ingredient of baked goods.
For example, if one kind of flour is used in a formula, its weight is 100%. If two kinds of flour are used in a formula, their total weight is 100%. To find the percentage of each ingredient used in a formula, all ingredients must be expressed in the same unit, such as pounds. Once all the units are the same, you can use this calculation:
weight of ingredient
Notice that the new formula simply doubles each ingredient. That is because you are making 10 8inch cakes instead of five.
Many professional bakers use formulas that contain percentages. A percentage is a rate or proportion of 100. In other words, if 5% of the weight of flour
For example, imagine you are trying to find the percentage of water used in a formula for bread dough. The formula calls for 15 pounds of bread flour and 9 pounds of water. Calculate the percentage as follows:
^(welglrlwaler) X 100% = 60% water 15 lb. (weight of flour)
So, the baker's percentage of water is 60%.
Baker's percentages allow you to compare the weight of each ingredient. What is especially convenient about baker's percentages is that one ingredient can be changed without recalculating percentages for each ingredient. Remember that the total percentages of all the ingredients will always add up to more than 100%.
accurate measurement so important in baking?
Large Bakeshop Equipment
Bakeshop equipment is exposed to wet, sticky ingredients and extreme changes in temperature. It is important for bakeshop equipment to be durable, of good quality, and well maintained. You must keep all bakeshop equipment and tools clean and maintained. (See Chapter 9 for more information.)
Mixers
Mixers are essential to every bakeshop. They perform a variety of functions. They are used to mix, knead, or whip batters and doughs. The most common mixer in the bakeshop is the bench, or tabletop, mixer. It comes with three basic attachments: a spiral dough hook, a flat beater or paddle, and a whip.
There are bench mixers for small volumes and floor mixers for larger volumes. Mixer capacity ranges from 5 to 140 quarts. Commercial bakeshops typically use floor models with at least a 30quart capacity. These mixers have adapter rings that allow you to use several differentsize bowls on one machine.
Sheeter
A sheeter is a piece of equipment that rolls out large pieces of dough to a desired thickness. It is used mostly for rolling and folding doughs, such as puff pastries, croissants, and Danish pastries. It also can be used to flatten pie or pizza dough.
Climate Control Proofing cabinets keep dough at a consistent temperature while it rises prior to baking. What two elements does a proofing cabinet control?
Dough Sheeters Industrial sheeters are used to roll and fold doughs. What else could a sheeter do?
Climate Control Proofing cabinets keep dough at a consistent temperature while it rises prior to baking. What two elements does a proofing cabinet control?
Dough Sheeters Industrial sheeters are used to roll and fold doughs. What else could a sheeter do?
Proofing Cabinets
A proofing cabinet, also called a proofer, is a freestanding metal box on wheels that is temperature and humiditycontrolled. Proofing cabinets can be used to keep baked products warm or to proof yeast doughs. A proofing cabinet allows dough to rise slowly in a humidity controlled, lowheat environment before it is baked. This is vital to creating baked products of high quality.
Bakery Ovens
Commercial ovens are invaluable, or extremely helpful, pieces of equipment in the bakeshop. These ovens are used to produce a large variety of baked products. Both electric and gas models can be equipped with convection fans that circulate the oven's heated air. Some ovens even come with steam injection for proper volume and crust development in bread baking. Certain specialty bread bakers use oldworld types of ovens that are bricklined and fueled by wood.
Deck Oven
This freestanding rectangular oven, also known as a stack oven, has a series of wellinsulated compartments stacked on top of one another. Because each of these shelves has a separate door and temperature control, you can bake a variety of items at once. Deck ovens are used to bake a variety of items. You will find the deck oven in most bakeries and pizza kitchens.
Deck ovens offer bakers a lot of flexibility. Bakers who use deck ovens can produce large or small amounts of baked goods because each deck has a separate control. Different products can be baked in each deck.
Convection Oven
A convection oven has a fan that circulates the oven's heated air. This fan allows you to cook foods in about 30% less time and at temperatures approximately 25° to 35° lower than temperatures in a conventional oven. Convection ovens range in size, and are available in either gas or electric models.
Sheet Pan
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