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Development Class 10 Extra Questions Economics Chapter 1
QUESTIONS OF 1 MARK
Answers should not exceed 30 words.
Why do different persons have different notions of development ?
Each person seeks different things. All persons seek things that are most important for them i.e., that which can fulfill their aspirations or desires.
Give an example of conflicting desires/aspirations.
An industrialist may want more dams to get more electricity but this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced such as tribal people. They prefer small dams.
State two points about the developmental goals that are observed in day to day life.
- Different persons can have different developmental goals.
- What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other.
Which are the common things that are desired by most of the people ?
What people desire are regular work, better wages, and decent price for their products or crops that they produce.
Besides seeking more, what other goals can be sought by people ?
The other goals may be equal treatment, freedom, security and respect of others.
How do we generally compare two persons ?
Usually we take one or more important characteristics of persons and compare them based on these-characteristics such as friendliness, cooperation or marks secured.
What is average income of a country ?
Average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. The average income is also called per capital income.
How is the development of a country determined ?
Development of a country can generally be determined by its per capital income.
Why is per capita income always considered as an important parameter of measuring development ?
The aim of economic development is to raise the living standard of the people and through this to raise consumption level. This can be estimated through per capital income rather than national income. Thus the per capital income is a good, measure of economic development.
State one condition that may allow women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.
A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.
As per World Development Report 2006 brought out by the World Bank, what is the per capital income of rich and low income countries in 2004 ?
- Rich countries V- ? 4,53,000 per annum.
- Low income countries — ? 37,000 or less.
For comparing countries which is the most important attribute ?
For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attribute.
Why is for comparison between countries, total income is not such an useful measure ?
Since, countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.
What is the other name of average income ?
The average income is also called per capital income.
Mention any one limitation of Per Capita Income as an indicator of development.
Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use. Money cannot buy a pollution-free environment. Money cannot protect you from infectious diseases unless the whole community takes preventive steps.
If there are five persons in a family with income of Rs.6000, Rs.5000, Rs.4000,Rs.3000, Rs.2000, what is the average income of a person ?
What is Infant Mortality Rate ?
Infant Mortality Rate or IMR indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.
What is Literacy Rate ?
Literacy Rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age.
What is Net Attendence Ratio ?
Net Attendence Ratio is the total number of children of age group 6-10 attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.
In which state the Infant Mortality Rate is lowest in India ?
Why has Kerala a low Infant Mortality Rate ?
It is due to adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.
How does Human Development Report compare the countries ?
Human Development Report compare the countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.
Out of India and its neighbours which country has the highest and lowest life expectancy at birth ?
- Highest life expectancy rate at birth – 74 — Sri Lanka.
- Lowest life expectancy rate at birth – 61 -Myanmar.
What is HDI ? Which institution publish it ?
- HDI stands for Human Development Index.
- It is published by UNDP.
In which states in India groundwater is overused ?
Groundwater overuse is found in agriculturally prosperous regions of Punjab, Haryana and western U.P., hard rock plateau areas of central and south India, some coastal areas and the rapidly growing urban settlements.
What are non-renewable resources ?
Non-renewable resources are those which will get exhausted after years of use because we have a fixed stock on earth which cannot be replenished.
What is India’s rank in HDI in the world ?
Which area of the world has the largest crude oil reserves ?
Which state is India has the lowest literacy rate ?
What is found out by BMI ?
QUESTIONS OF 3/5 MARKS
Answers should be in about 80/100 words.
Which three developmental goals will you like to prescribe for rural labourers ?
Three developmental goals that can be prescribed for rural labourers are as mentioned below :
- Maximum days of work.
- Better wages so that they may make the both ends meet.
- Generally the children of labourers are deprived of education. So school must be opened in villages and the children of labourers should be given free education. Books must be provided to them free of cost.
- There should be no social discrimination and they should be given opportunities to participate in the working of village panchayats etc.
On what basis are the developmental goals determined by different people ? Give one example to prove that development for one may cause harm to others [CBSE 2016-17]
“People have conflicting developmental goals.” Support the statement with suitable examples.
Explain common, different and conflicting goals by giving suitable examples. [CBSE 2016-17]
“Development for one may be destruction for the other.” Give one example to support the statement. [CBSE 2016-17]
Define Development. With the help of an example show how two groups may have different notions of development. [CBSE 2016-17]
“For development, people look at a mix of goals.” Support this statement with three suitable examples.
1. Development involves thinking about our aspirations or desires and about the ways in which we can work towards achieving these desires/goals.
2. Different goals : Different persons in the society have different aspirations and goals.
- One may desire to be a doctor while another person an engineer. There is no conflict between the two.
- They can fulfill their aspirations or desires.
3. Conflicting Goals : Sometimes two groups of persons may desire conflicting things. For example, industrialists may want construction of more dams for generation of electricity. But this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced – such as tribals. They might resent this and may prefer small check dams or tanks to irrigate their land.
Thus what may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other.
4. Common goals : Besides more income people may seek other goals such as equal treatment, freedom, security and respect of others. All these may be common goals for all.
All these are important goals. In fact in some cases these may be more important than more income or more consumption because material goods are not all one needs to live. The quality of life depends on non-material things such as friendship.
From above, it is clear that people have common goals, conflicting goals and different goals in life for their development.
5. Mixed goals : Similarly for development, people look at a mix of goals. For example, if there is respect for women, there would be more sharing of housework and a greater acceptance of women working outside. A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business. People have developmental goals about better income as well as other important things of life.
Give some examples where factors other than income are important aspects of our lives.
Income can be measured but there are things which cannot be measured but are important in life. For example a person gets a job offer in a far off place. The salary is very good but before accepting that offer he will consider the following points :
- Facilities for the family.
- Working atmosphere e., night duty or morning duty hours.
- Regular or temporary employment.
- Accommodation for living.
Person will have to consider all the above points before joining. He may join only if the conditions are favourable for him. Thus the developmental goals that people have are not only about better income but also about other important aspects.
What is meant by National Development ? Give your own opinion.
National development refers to the development of a country which include the following points :
- There should be a fair and just path for all.
- There should be a pollution free environment.
- It should benefit a large number of people and not a small group. There should be increase in per capita income in such a way that the gap between the rich and the poor be the minimum. Citizens should be provided better health facilities, better educational facilities.
On the basis of the given table answer the following questions :
COMPARISON OF TWO COUNTRIES
|Country||Monthly Income of Citizens in 2007 (in Rupees)|
(a) Calculate the average income of country A and B
(b) Are both the countries equally developed ?
(c) Which country is better and why ?
Note : For the sake of simplicity it is asumed that there are five citizens in each country.
(c) Country A is better because the income of all the people is almost equal. On the other hand, there is great gap in income of people of country Out of five, one person earns Rs.48,000 and four earn Rs.500 each.
Why is literacy essential for economic development ? Explain.
Literacy is essential for economic development due to the following reasons :
- An educated person is more successful in his life.
- Education enhances the total productivity of a person.
- An educated person can earn more than the illiterate persons.
- An educated person can use science and technology and help in the progress of the country.
What is the most appropriate base of measuring development of a country?
- Usually we take one or more important characteristics of persons and compare them based on these characteristics.
- There may be differences about what are important characteristics that should form the basis of comparison : friendliness and spirit of cooperation, creativity or marks secured.
- Similarly in case of development, for comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.
- Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income. This is based on the understanding that more income means more of all things that human beings need. With greater income people can have whatever they like.
“While averages are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities.” Explain with example.
It is true that while ‘averages’ are useful for comparison, they also hide disparities. It is clear from the table given below :
Comparison of two countries
|Country||Monthly income of citizens||Average|
In both the cases in the table, average income in both countries is ? 10,000. However if a choice is given, a person will like to live in country A because in this country people are neither very rich nor extremely poor. On the other hand, most citizens in country B are poor and one person is extremely rich. Hence, while average income is useful for comparison, it hides disparities and does not show how the income is distributed.
What do you mean by public facilities ? Why are they important ? Name two public facilities available in India.
Highlight any three major advantages of public facilities.
(1) Public facilities are those facilities and services which are required for society or for public to lead a better life. These are generally provided by the government.
(2) These are important and have advantages as mentioned below :
- Money cannot buy all services required for a better quality of life , pollution free environment and better transport.
- It is cheapest way and the best way to provide goods and facilities to the people.
- It develops the national feeling and a sense of collective responsibility.
(3) Public facilities available in India are Public Distribution System (PDS), Public Transport, hospitals, police and government colleges and schools.
Does availability of good health and educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities ? What other factors could be
Availability of good health and educational facilities do not depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities. It depends on rich people, big companies, charitable trusts and others. For example, we find that a large percentage of schools and colleges are being run by educational trusts such as DAV College Managing Committee or S.D. Sabha. Similarly, there are many hospitals and nursing homes which are being run by private individuals and trusts. In fact more health and educational facilities are being provided by private persons, trusts etc. than by the government.
In Tamil Nadu, 75% of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop, whereas in Jharkhand only 8% of rural people do so. Where would people be better off and why ?
The people in Tamil Nadu would be better because they buy grain and other articles from the ration shops at lesser price than that of the market. Generally, all essential commodities like wheat, rice, sugar, edible oils and kerosene are available at ration shops. These shops enable the poor to get goods even during the time of scarcity. The Public Distribution System (PDS) or ration shops make food available to the poor at affordable prices. In Tamil Nadu, fair price shops are being run by the cooperative societies for the benefit of the poor.
What is development ? Explain the indicators used by UNDP for measuring development.
Mention any two factors considered while calculating Human Development Index.
What is meant by Human Development Index ? Explain any four indicators of Human Development Index.
(1) Development involves thinking about our aspirations or desires and about the ways in which we can work towards achieving these desires or goals.
(2) Although the level of income is an important measure of level of development but it is not adequate. There are other important things such as education, health which are necessary in life. Thus health and education, life expectancy at birth along with income are being widely used as a measure of development.
(3) Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.
Compare India and Sri Lanka on the basis of any three indicators of HDI for 2004.
The position of India and Sri Lanka on the basis of per capita income, life expectancy at birth and literacy rate for 15+ years population in 2004 was as given below :
|(1)||Per capita income||3,139||4,390|
|for 15+ years population||61||91|
From above data it is clear that Sri Lanka’s position was better than that of India in all the three spheres.
Study the table given below and answer the following questions :
|State||Infant Mortality Rate per 1000 (2003)||Literacy Rate (%) (2001)|
(a) Calculate the difference in the infant mortality rate of Punjab and Kerala.
(b) Calculate the difference in literacy rate of Kerala and Bihar.
(c) Which state has the lowest HDI and why ?
(a) The difference is 38 per thousand. The position of Kerala is better than Punjab.
(b) The difference in literacy rate is 44%. The postion of Kerala is better than Bihar.
(c) Bihar has the lowest HDI because it lacks medical and educational facilities.
Write a short note on natural resources.
(a) Natural resources – Meaning : Natural resources are available with nature. Land, water, minerals and forests are some of the natural resources. Minerals are non-renewable resources.
(b) Exhaustion of natural resources and other problems : If the natural resources such as minerals are used indiscriminately, they will be exhausted. For example, if people in the world continue to use crude oil in the present manner, it will run out of stock in 43 years. Then there are countries like USA which are using their military and economic power to get maximum oil from other countries. India is dependent on other countries for oil and spending a lot of foreign exchange on its import.
(c) Steps for solving various problems : In view of the above problems following steps should be taken for the sustainability of development:
- Natural resources like crude oil should not be used indiscriminately.
- Alternate modes of energy ie., solar energy or wind energy and others should be used so that a part of limited natural resources may be preserved for future generations.
- There should be planned and judicious use of natural resources.
- In countries like India where a large amount of foreign exchange is being spent on import of crude oil, efforts must be made for its planned and judicious use. Individuals should be discouraged to use own vehicles/cars for going to their work place. They should use public transport system. The government on its part, should provide better transport facilities.
Why is sustainable development essential for economic growth ? Explain three reasons. [CBSE 2016-17]
Why is the issue of sustainability important for development ?
- Industrialisation and too much use of natural resources.
- Limited natural resources.
See Textbook Question 9 and Question 15 above.
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