NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 5 Rulers and Buildings are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 5 Rulers and Buildings.
|Subject||Social Science History|
|Chapter Name||Rulers and Buildings|
|Number of Questions Solved||18|
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 5 Rulers and Buildings
NCERT TEXTBOOK EXERCISES
I You are an artisan standing on a tiny wooden platform held together by bamboo j and rope fifty metres above the ground. You have to place an inscription under the first balcony of the Qutb Minar. How would you do this?
- I would first fix packings in the wall.
- Then chisels would be got through the inscription at its four comers.
- Then the inscription would be fixed on the wall below the balcony.
How is the ‘trabeate’ principle of architecture different from the ‘arcuate’!
In the trabeate principle of architecture roofs, doors and windows were made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns. In the arcuate principle of architecture, the weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was carried by arches.
What is a Shikharal
The topmost pointed portion of a temple is called a Shikhara.
What is pietra-dura?
Pietra dura refers to the coloured, hard stones placed in depressions carved into marble or sandstone which create beautiful ornate patterns.
What are the elements of a Mughal Chahar bagh garden?
The elements of a Mughal Chahar bagh (garden) are mentioned below:
- Placed within rectangular walled enclosures.
- Divided into four quarters (portions) by artificial channels.
- Symmetry in the four divisions.
How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?
Kings usually constructed temples to demonstrate their devotion to God and their power and wealth. Here we can mention the Rajarajeshvara temple which was built by King Rajarajadeva for the worship of his god, Rajarajeshvaram. It is noticeable that the names of the ruler and the god are very similar. The king took the god’s name because it was auspicious and he wanted to appear like a god. Through the rituals of worship in the temples one god le. Rajarajadeva honoured another le., Rajarajeshvaram.
Kings usually constructed the largest temples. The other, lesser deities in the temple were gods and goddesses of the allies and subordinates of the ruler. The temple was a miniature model of the world ruled by the king and his allies. As they worshipped their deities together in the royal temples, it seemed as if they brought the just rule of the gods on earth.
An inscription in Shah Jahan’s diwan-i khas in Delhi stated: “If there is Paradise on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here.” How was this image created?
Shah Jahan’s diwan-i khas was designed in such a way that it fused together in a grand harmonious synthesis. It was carefully planned. It was placed within a large courtyard. Behind the emperor’s throne there were a series of pietra-dura inlays. It depicted the legendiy god Orpheus playing the lute. The diwan-e khas was aimed to communicate that the king’s justice would treat the high and the low as equals, creating a world where all could live together in harmony. The diwon-i khas reflected the image of a paradise in itself.
How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone—the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak—received justice equally from the emperor?
The Mughal court suggested that everyone—the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak received justice equally from the emperor as the Diwan-i am was for all. All could collect there and put their grievances before the emperor without any bias or discrimination. The Pietra Dura work behind the throne suggests the same.
What role did the Yamuna play in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad?
The river Yamuna had a very significant role in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad. Shah Jahan preferred the river-front garden in the layout of the Taj Mahal. He developed the same architectural form as a means to control the access that the nobles had to the river. In the new city of Shahjahanabad, the imperial palace also commanded the river-front. Only the most favoured nobles were given access to the river. Other than those had to construct their homes in the city away from the river Yamuna. It expanded the layout of the city.
The rich and powerful construct large houses today. In what ways were the constructions of kings and their courtiers different in the past?
The rich and powerful construct large houses today. But these houses are not the same as those of the kings and their courtiers in the past. The houses of the kings and their courtiers were big structures with big courtyard, thick walls, domed-roofs, huge pillars, big gardens and well-decorated halls. But today houses have no courtyards gardens nor thick walls nor domed-roofs. In many ways, these are inferior to those of the kings and their courtier’s houses.
Look at the Figure below. How could that building be constructed faster today?
Such buildings can be constructed faster today with the help of cranes and other modern machines.
Find out whether there is a statue of or a memorial to a great person in your village or town. Why was it placed there? What purpose does it serve?
- Yes, it is of Mahatma Gandhi. It was placed there to commemorate the ‘Father of the Nation’.
- It renews the sacrifice of the father to the nation daily when one passes by it.
Visit and describe any park or garden in your neighbourhood. In what ways is it similar to or different from the gardens of the Mughals?
The gardens of Mughals gardens were spread over a very large area. There was a large variety of flowers. They were well-decorated and protected. But the garden in my neighbourhood is not so large. Everyone has easy access to this garden. So the flowers are not safe. Thus, we don’t find any similarities.
INTEXT QUESTIONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS
What differences do you notice between the Shikharas of the two temples? Can you make out that the Shikhara of the Rajarajeshvara temple is twice as high as that of the Kandariya Mahadeva? (NCERT Textbook Page 62)
- Shikhara of Rajarajeshvara temple is bigger than that of the Kandariya temple.
Compare Fig. 2(a) and 2(6) with Fig. 5(a) and 5(b). (NCERT Page 63)
- Fig. 2 (a) shows the screen in the Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, Delhi.
- Fig. 2 (b) shows the Corbelled technique used in the construction.
- Fig. 5 (b) shows image of True arch, details from Alai Darwaza of Quwwat- al-Islam mosque.
- Fig. 5 (a) shows the ‘arcuate’ form of architecture. The ‘keystone’ at the centre of the arch transfer the weight of the superstructure to the base of the arch.
Describe what the labourers are doing, the tools shown, and the means of carrying stones. (NCERT Page 63)
Labourers are involved in the construction of a huge gate. They are using old tools like hammer, and techniques for breaking the stone. Stones are carried manually.
Why were temples destroyed? (NCERT Page 65)
- Kings built temples to demonstrate their devotion to God and their power and wealth.
- When they attacked one another’s kingdoms, they often targeted these buildings.
- In the early ninth century when the Pandyan king Shrimara Shrivallabha invaded Sri Lanka and defeated the king, Sena I (831-851) it is believed that “he removed
all the valuables the statue of the Buddha made entirely of gold in the Jewel Palace and the golden images in the various monasteries’.
- The blow to the pride of the Sinhalese ruler had to be avenged. The next Sinhalese ruler, Sena II, ordered his general to invade Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas.
- His expedition made a special effort to find and restore the gold statue of the Buddha.
- In the same way in the early eleventh century, when the Chola King Rajendra I built a Shiva temple in his capital he filled it with prized statues which he seized from defeated rulers.
- An incomplete list included.
- A Sun-pedestal from the Chalukyas.
- A Ganesha statue and several statues of Durga.
- A Nandi statue from the eastern Chalukyas.
- An image of Bhairava (a form of Shiva) and Bhairavi from the Kalingas of Orissa.
- A Kali statue from the Palas of Bengal.
In what ways do you think the policies of Rajendra I and Mahmud of Ghazni were a product of their times? How were the actions of the two rulers different? (NCERT Page 66)
- King Rajendra, I looted the temples of defeated rulers and put the images in the newly constructed temples Mahmud of Ghazni destroyed and looted temples to give himself the credit of being a great hero of Islam.
- In this way both were different -one constructed the temple, another destroyed the temple.
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