On this page, you will find NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 6 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes History Chapter 6 SST Colonialism and the City will seemingly, help them to revise the important concepts in less time.
Colonialism and the City Class 8 Notes Social Science History Chapter 6
CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 6 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. Most of the western cities of western world emerged with the industrialization.
2. Late 18th century saw the rise of the Presidency cities named Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
3. Surat, Machlipatnam and Seringapatam were the cities where de-urbanization took place in the 19thcentury.
4. Delhi has been the capital from thousands of years but with some gaps.
5. The most splendid capital of all was built by Shah Jahan named Shahjahanabad, begun in 1639.
6. Delhi was an important centre of sufi culture during the time of Shah Jahan as Delhi had several darghas, Khanqahs and idgahs.
7. But facilities were enjoyed by very some people only and there was a sharp divisions between the rich and poor.
8. In 1803, British gained the control over Delhi defeating Marathas but it was developed only after 1911 when Delhi became the capital of the British India.
9. Development of Delhi before 1857 was different from those of other cities of colonial rule.
10. In Delhi, the British lived along with the wealthier Indians in the walled city. The British enjoyed learning Urdu/Persian culture and poetry and participated in local festivals.
11. The period of 1830 – 1857 was regarded as the period of the Delhi Renaissance.
12. The British wanted Delhi to forget the Mughal rule’s past and the areas around the port were completely cleared of garden, pavilions and mosques.
13. In 1870’s, the western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken for the establishment of Railway and to allow the expansion of the city beyond the walls.
14. During the course of planning a new capital after the revolt of 1857, many spectacular events took place. In 1877, A Durbar was organised by Lord Lytton to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India. Calcutta was still the capital but Durbar was being held in Delhi.
15. In 1911, when king George V was crowned in England, a Durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate the occasion. The decision was taken to shift capital from Calcutta to Delhi during the celebratory occasion of Durbar.
16. Two architects, Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker were called for designing New Delhi and its buildings.
17. New Delhi took nearly 20 years to build.
18. Life at the time of partition led to a massive transfer of population from India to Pakistan and from Pakistan to India in 1947.
19. After the partition the riots began when over 2/3rd Muslims migrated and almost 44,000 homes were abandoned. On the other hand, Delhi became a city of refugees with nearly 500,000 people added to the population of Delhi. New colonies such as Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar came up at this time.
20. Partition changed the lives and occupation of new migrants. A large number of migrants from Punjab and changed the social environment of Delhi.
21. Inside the old city in the 19th century, there can be seen that how the excellent system of water supply and drainage was neglected. The system of wells was broken and channels to remove household waste were damaged.
22. The Delhi Municipal Committee was unwilling to spend money on a good drainage system and the Shahjahani drains were closed with the introduction of a new system of open surface drains.
23. The Mughal aristocracy in the 17th and 18th centuries lived in grand mansions called havelis with feature like mansions, courtyards and fountains and many families housed in it.
24. Many of the Mughal amirs (A nobleman) were unable to maintain these havelis under the conditions of the British.
25. This resulted in beginning of subdivision and selling of havelis.
26. The census of 1931 revealed that the walled city had as many as 90 person per acre, while New Delhi had only about 3 persons per acre.
27. The poor conditions in the walled city, did not stop it from expanding and an extension scheme called the Lahore Gate improvement scheme was planned by Robert Clarke for the Walled city residents.
28. The Delhi Improvement Trust was space in 1936 and it built areas like Daryaganj South for wealthy Indians.
29. Houses grouped around parks and new rule of privacy was introduced.
30. Now different members of the same family had their own private spaces within the home.
Colonialism and the City Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Presidency: For administrative purposes, colonial India was divided into three “Presidencies” (Bombay, Madras and Bengal), which developed from the East India Company’s “Factories” (trading posts) at Surat, Madras and Calcutta.
Urbanisation: The process by which more and more people begin to reside in towns and cities.
Dargah: The tomb of a Sufi saint.
Khanqah: A Sufi lodge, often used as a rest house of travellers and a place where people come to discuss, spiritual matters, get the blessings of saints and hear Sufi music.
Idgah: An open prayer place of Muslims primarily meant for id prayers.
Cul-de-sac: Street with dead end.
Gulfaroshan: A festival of flowers.
Renaissance: Rebirth of art and learning.
Amir: A nobleman.
Notes of History Class 8 Chapter 6 Time Period
1792: Establishment of the Delhi College.
1877: The Delhi College was turned into a school and shut down.
1803: The British gained control of Delhi after defeating the Marathas.
1830-1857: Period called as a period of the Delhi renaissance.
1870: The western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken to establish the railway and to allow the city to expand beyond the walls.
1877: Queen Victoria acknowledge as the Empress of India.
1888: Lahore Gate improvement Scheme was planned by Robert Clarke.
1911: Delhi became the capital of British India.
1947: The Partition of India.