CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 3 are part of CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science. Here we have given CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 3.
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 12 Political Science Paper 3
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Students who are going to appear for CBSE Class 12 Examinations are advised to practice the CBSE sample papers given here which is designed as per the latest Syllabus and marking scheme as prescribed by the CBSE is given here. Paper 3 of Solved CBSE Sample Paper for Class 12 Political Science is given below with free PDF download solutions.
Time Allowed: 3 hours
Maximum Marks: 80
- All questions are compulsory.
- Questions nos. 1 to 5 are of 1 mark each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 20 words
- Questions nos. 6 to 10 are of 2 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words
- Questions nos. 11 to 16 are of 4 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words
- Questions nos. 17 to 21 are of 5 marks each. The answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words
- Questions no. 21 is map based question
- Questions nos. 22 to 27 are of 6 marks each. The answer to these questions should not i exceed 150 words
When did Socialist Revolution take place in Russia?
Which two languages were spoken in Bombay state before it was divided in 1960?
What is Development?
Mention the names of member states of SAARC.
Name the members of Security Council who have used veto power for the maximum and minimum number of times respectively.
Mention some points of agreement between India and Nepal.
Which interests were hidden behind the conflicts between Hindus and Muslims at the time of independence?
Who founded the Congress Party and why?
What is the meaning and importance of Economic Planning in Indian context?
In which context India started participating in the world affairs as an independent nation j state?
Access any four principles of India’s foreign policy.
What does the term ‘syndicate’ mean in the context of the Congress party of the sixties? What role did the Syndicate play in the Congress party?
How can we see re-emergence of Indira Gandhi to power in 1971?
Is terrorism a traditional or non-traditional threat to security?
What is meant by Global Commons? How are they exploited and polluted?
Mention negative impact of globalisation.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
Pakistan and Bangladesh have experienced both civilian and military rulers, with Bangladesh remaining democracy in the Post-Cold War period. Pakistan began the Post-Cold War period with successive democratic governments under Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif respectively. But it suffered a military coup in 1999 and has been run by a military regime since then. Till 2006 Nepal was a constitutional monarchy with the danger of the king taking over executive powers. In 2006, a successful uprising led to restoration of democracy and reduced the king to a nominal position. From the experience of Bangladesh and Nepal, we can say that democracy is becoming an accepted norm in the entire region of South Asia.
(i) How did Pakistan begin with Post-Cold War period?
(ii) Mention two reasons for the aspiration of democracy in South Asia.
(iii) Why are these findings significant?
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
Thus, with the elections of 1989, a long phase of coalition politics began in India. Since then, there have been nine governments at the Centre, all of which have either been coalition governments or minority governments supported by other parties, which did not join the government. In this new phase, any government could be formed only with the participation or support of many regional parties. This applied to the National Front in 1989, the United Front in 1996 and 1997, the NDA in 1997. BJP-led coalition in 1998, NDA in 1999 and the UPA in 2004.What is meant by coalition politics?
(ii) Name any two regional political parties which were a part of coalition government.
(iii) Write the full form of NDA.
(iv) What does a minority government mean?
Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:
(i) What does the cartoon comment?
(ii) What is referred under the title ‘Yesterday’?
(iii) What message does the title ‘Today’ convey?
Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions:
Countries have conflicts and differences with each other. That does not necessarily mean they must go to war to deal with their antagonisms. They can, instead, discuss contentious issues and find peaceful solutions; indeed, even though this is rarely noticed, most conflicts and differences are resolved without going to war. The role of an international organisation can be important in this context. An international organisation is not a super-state with authority over its members. It is created by and responds to states. It comes into being when states agree to its creation. Once created, it can help member states resolve their problems peacefully.
(i) Is this necessary to engage into wars during conflicts among countries?
(ii) Is an international organisation a super state?
(iii) What is the significance of international organisation?
On a political outline map of the world, locate and label the following and symbolise them as indicated:
(i) Five permanent members of UN Security Council and symbolise them as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
(ii) Locate and label peace keeping operations.
“The accommodation of regional demands and the formation of linguistic states were also seen as more democratic.” Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments.
Did the prevalence of a ‘one-party dominant system’ affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics?
What was the major thrust of the First Five Year Plan? In which ways did the Second Plan differ from the first one? 6
What was Shock Therapy? Was this the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism?
“Resistance is the only option available to overcome the hegemony.” Justify the statement by comparing it to other anti-hegemony strategies. 6
What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organisation?
Do movements and protests in a country strengthen democracy? Justify your answer with examples. 6
Describe the secessionist movement of Mizos. How as per the provisions of the Constitution, was it resolved on accommodation of diversities?
Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy. Drawing from India’s experience of last twenty years, write an essay on what advantages the present party system in India has.
Analyse any six consequences of the partition of India in 1947.
How can the US hegemony be checked?
Gujarati and Marathi.
Development refers to the process of improving living standard of country/people and economic level in reference to industrialisation and modernisation to be judged by the improvements in the quality of life.
India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan and Maldives.
Maximum – 122 times by Russia
Minimum – 4 times by China
India and Nepal enjoy the following agreements :
- Allow their citizens to travel and work without visas and passport.
- India is the largest aid giver to Nepal to provide financial and technical assistance in areas of trade, scientific cooperation, common natural resources and electricity generation.
Hindu and Muslim communities bear some political interests at the time of independence:
- Muslim League demanded a separate nation for Muslims to protect the interests of Muslims only.
- There were some Hindu organisations also which made efforts to look after the interests of Hindus only to make India a ‘Hindu Nation’.
Congress was founded by Dr. A.O. Hume in 1885 as a view to express the feelings of discontentment changed to a political party in the form of social and ideological coalition i by accommodating different social groups and individuals holding different beliefs and ideologies. Even in pre-independence days, many organisation and parties with their own Constitutions and organisational structures were allowed to exist within the Congress.
Economic Planning in India refers to a systematic regulation of economic activities by government to reduce the wastage of time and resources:
- Economic planning helps to achieve national goals in a continuous process of development.
- It is a rational process to associate with the future needs and goals to evaluate alternate proposals also.
- British government left the legacy of many international disputes.,
- Priority to the poverty alleviation.
- Pressures created by the partition.
India’s foreign policy is based on principles of Panchsheel, which is derived from two words ‘Panch’ means Five and ‘Sheel’ means a ‘Code of Conduct’ for peaceful co-existence.
- Non-alignment (NAM)
- Mutual benefits and equality
- Mutual non-aggression
- Non-intervention in each others international affairs
- To maintain international peace and understanding
Syndicate was a group of powerful and influential leaders from within the Congress :
- Syndicate was led by K. Kamaraj, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and the then president of Congress party. It also includes some powerful leaders like S.K. Patil, S. Nijalingappa, N. Sanjeeva Reddy and Atulya Ghosh.
- In the sixties, Syndicate played a decisive role by installing both Lai Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi as a Prime Minister.
- Syndicate played decisive say in Indira Gandhi’s first Council of Ministers and formation and implementation of policies.
- After a split, two groups in Congress were created i.e. Congress (O), led by Syndicate and Congress (R), led by Indira Gandhi.
- Congress (R) won popularity after 1971 and Syndicate lost power and prestige.
Congress (R) under Indira Gandhi had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan which was lacked by its opponents. The ‘Grand Alliance’ had only one common programme ‘Indira Hatao’
- In contrast to this, Indira Gandhi put forward a positive slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’.
- By this, she generated a support base among poor, minorities, landless labourers, dalit, women and unemployed youth.
- Except it, she focused on the growth of public sector, imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparity etc.
- Thus, the slogan of Garibi Hatao and programmes became the part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base during the electoral contest of 1971.
Terrorism is a non-traditional threat to wound the peace and order in the country:
- Terrorism refers to political violence to target civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
- Civilians are usually terrorised to be it as a weapon against national government and other parties in the conflict.
- Terrorism involves hijacking planes or planting bombs in trains, cafes, markets and other crowded places.
- After a terrorist attack on World Trade Centre on 11 September 2001, the other governments and public also are paying more attention to terrorism.
The areas or regions located outside the jurisdiction of any one state and region, common governance by international community are Global Commons i.e. Earth atmosphere, Antarctic Ocean floor and outer space. They are exploited and polluted due to
- Vague scientific evidences, their lack of consensus on common environmental issues.
- North-South inequalities and their exploitative activities and competition lack proper management area out space.
- Technological and Industrial development have also affected the earth’s atmosphere and ocean floor.
- Globalisation has not generated much more employment opportunities because it needs highly skilled people only.
- The foreign companies focus on their profit orientation projects only in place of social welfare.
- It has widened income disparities by making the rich richer and the poor more poorer.
- Gradually, globalisation is also a reason for depletion of flora and fauna in country.
- Even farmers are supposed to be well educated if they want to use modern methods of cultivation.
- Pakistan began with Post-Cold War period with successive democratic government under Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif.
- Ordinary citizens rich or poor or belonging to different religions or institutions view democracy more suitable and support them.
- Because it was earlier believed that democracy could flourish and find support only in prosperous countries of the world.
- Coalition politics does not have majority even to a single party but parties may enter into an alliance or get support of other parties to form government.
- NDA and United Front
- National Democratic Alliance
- Minority governments are supported by other parties which did not join the government.
- Cartoon comments on the changing scenario due to globalisation.
- It refers to earlier conditions of developing countries who were starving due to less growth in their economy.
- Globalisation opened doors for new entrants from developing nations and resulted into brain drain.
- No, instead countries can discuss contentious issues to find peaceful solutions.
- No, it is created by and responds to states and comes into being when study agrees to its creation.
- To help member states to resolve problems peacefully without going to war.
- The UK
- The US
- Cyprus 1964
- Lebanon 1978
- Israel 1974
- Sudan 2005
- East Timor 2006
- The States Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1953 by the Central Government to redraw the boundaries of the states.
- The Commission accepted that the boundaries of the state should reflect the boundaries of different languages. On the basis of this, the States Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956. This led to creation of 14 states and 6 union territories.
- In the early phase, it was felt that linguistic states may foster separation and create pressures on newly founded nation. But India considered democracy and federalism by making a favour to linguistic states only. It was hoped that if people accept the regional and linguistic claims of all regions, the threat of division and separatism would be reduced. When linguistic states were formed, they –
- enhanced democratic practices.
- reduced separatist attitude by accepting the religional linguistic claims of all religions.
- provided a uniform base to the nation and strengthened unity of nation.
- promoted the principle of unity in diversity, a distinct feature of nation.
Therefore, the accommodation of regional demands and the formation of linguistic states were also seen as more democratic.
No, the prevalence of one party dominance system did not affect adversely the democratic nature of Indian politics because:
- The key role of the Congress in the freedom struggle gave it a head start over others.
- The Congress accommodated diversified interests, religion, beliefs and aspirations to strengthen democracy.
- Despite being taken place of free and fair elections, Congress won elections in the same manner again and again.
- The Congress Party consisted of various factions inside itself, based on ideological considerations who never taught together or went out of Congress.
- Hence, on the basis of above mentioned criterion, it can be concluded that Congress
The First Five Year Plan was commenced in 1951 to be drafted by young economist K.N. Roy with the emphasis on poverty alleviation. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India presented this to the Parliament of India. Its main thrusts were as follows:
- To invest in dams and irrigation to improve agricultural sector with the urgent attention.
- Huge allocations were made for large scale projects like Bhakra-Nangal dam.
- It focused on land reforms for the development in rural areas.
- It aimed to increase level of national income. The First Five Year plan differed from the Second Five Year plan:
- The Second Five Year Plan stressed on heavy industrialisation.
- It wanted to bring quick structural transformation in all possible directions in place of slow and steady growth like First Five Year Plan.
Shock Therapy was a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. This transformation system was influenced by the world bank and the IMF in Russia, Central Asia and East Europe. Though it varies in intensity and speed amongst the former second world countries but its direction and features were quite siihilar.
This was not the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism due to following drawbacks:
- Russia, the large state controlled industrial complex lost about 90 per cent of its industries through sales to private individuals and companies.
- It created “the largest garage sale in history” which led virtual disappearance of entire industries for the restructuring was carried out by market forces in place of government owned policies.
Hence, industries were undervalued and sold at throwaway prices.
- It systematically destroyed old system of social welfare.
- The value of‘ruble’, the Russian currency, declined dramatically due to high rate of inflation and real GDP of Russia also declined between 1989 to 1999.
- The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of society into poverty and it emerged mafia to start controlling many economic activities.
- Privatisation led to new disparities which divided Russia between rich and poor people creating economic inequality.
- Hence, Shock Therapy brought ruin to economies and disaster upon the people of entire region.
Bandwagon Strategy :
- The best way to resist hegemony is to work with other than against the hegemony. So, instead of engaging in activities opposed to hegemonic power, it may be to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic system. .
- Another strategy named ‘Hide’ implies staying away from the dominant power as far as possible. All the big powers like China, Russia, the European Union are seeking to stay below the radar but this cannot go on for a long time.
- Some people believe that resistance to the US hegemony is the only solution but not from states who are unable to face the hegemony.
- Therefore, challenges to the US hegemony will emerge in the economic and cultural realms and will come from a contribution of Non-Governmental organizations social movements and public opinion.
- Resistance may be from the section of media and intellectuals, artists and writers.
As a supernational organisation, the European Union bears economic, political diplomacy and military influence as a regional organisation in the following manner:
- Economic Influence :
- Three times larger share in world trade than the US.
- Its currency Euro, can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
- The EU functions as an important bloc in the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
- Political and Diplomatic Influences :
- The EU also includes various non-permanent members of the UNSC.
- The European Union plays an influential role in diplomacy and negotiations except the military force i.e. the EU’s dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation is remarkable.
- Military Influence :
- The EU’s combined armed forces are second largest in the world.
- Its total expenditure on military is second to the US.
- The EU is world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.
Yes, to some extent movements and protests in country strengthen democracy to have mixed reactions both for and against:
Arguments for :
- Anti-arrack movement, Chipko movement, NBA etc., rectified some problems to be seen as integral part of democratic politics.
- These movements ensured participation and representation from diverse groups to reduce possibility of deep social conflicts in democracy.
- These movements broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy i.e., Anti¬arrack movement and Dalit Panthers.
Arguments against :
- Collective actions, rallies, strikes, disrupt the functioning of a democracy and create a delay in decision making.
- Routine functioning of democracy did not have enough space for the voices of these social groups.
- It is possible to ignore demand of these movements with the presentation to be represented by one section of society only.
- Political parties do not seem to be taking up issues of marginal social groups.
- The relationship between popular movements and political parties has grown weaker over the years creating a vacuum in politics.
Hence, we may conclude that movements are not only about collective assertions or rallies or protest, but they also involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, demand and expectations.
- After Independence, the Mizo hills was made an autonomous district within Assam.
- Some Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India and not to belong to Indian Union.
- The movement of seccession gained popular support after Assam government failed to respond adequately to great famine of 1959 in Mizo hills.
- It led to formation of Mizo National Front (MNF) under leadership of Laldenga.
- In 1966, the MNF started an armed campaign for independence.
- The MNF fought gurilla war, got support from Pakistan government and secured shelter in then East Pakistan.
- At the end of two decades of insurgency, Mizoram under leadership of Laldenga started negotiations with Indian government.
- 1986, a peace agreement was signed between Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga which granted statehood to Mizoram with special powers and MNF agreed to give up seccessionist struggle.
- Today, Mizoram is one of the most peaceful places in the region alongwith big strides in literacy and development.
In the first decade of electoral politics, India did not have a recognised opposition party. But some of vibrant and diverse opposition parties had come into being even before the first General Election of 1952 as the non-Congress parties. Hence, the roots of almost all the non-Congress parties of today can be traced to one or the other of the opposition parties of 1950s.
All these opposition parties gained only a representation, still their presence played a crucial role in maintaining democratic character of system. Hence due to following reasons two party system is required for successful democracy:
- Within two party systems, the opposition party offers a sustained and principled criticism of policies and practices of ruling party keeping it under a strict check.
- By keeping democratic political alternative alive, these parties prevented the resentment with the system from turning anti-democratic.
On the basis of above mentioned features it is justifiable to have a two party system which have following advantages:
- India has arrived at more competitive politics.
- Political parties act within the spheres of consensus.
- New forms, vision, pathways of development have been identified.
- Issues like poverty, displacement, minimum wages, livelihood and social security are being put on political agenda.
- Issues of justice and democracy are being voiced by various classes, castes and regions to remind states its responsibility.
Consequences of the partition of India :
- The year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population that Indian history was known. In the name of religion, people of a community killed and maimed people of the other community. Cities like Lahore, Calcutta (Kolkata) and Amritsar were titled as communal zones.
- Muslims would avoid going into areas where mainly Hindus and Sikhs lived. Similarly, the Hindus and Sikhs stayed away from Muslim areas.
- People went through immense sufferings because they were forced to abandon their homes and move across borders. Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelter in ‘refugee camps’. They often found helpless local police and administration helpless in what was till recently their own country. They travelled to the other side of the new border by all sorts of means, often by foot. Even during this journey they were often attacked, killed or raped. Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border. They were made to convert to the religion of the abductor and were forced into marriage. In many cases, women were killed by their own family members to preserve the ‘family honour’. Many children were separated from their parents.
- Those who did manage to cross the border found that they had no home. For lakhs of these ‘refugees’ the country’s freedom meant life in refugee camps, for a long time.
- While recounting the trauma of partition, they have often used the phrase that the survivors themselves used to describe partition—as a division of hearts.
- The partition was not merely a division of properties, liabilities and assets, or a political division of the country and the administrative apparatus. The employees of the government and the railways were also divided. Partition forced about 80 lakh people to migrate across the new border. About 5 to 10 lakhs people were killed in partition-related violence. However, beyond the administrative concerns and financial strains, the partition posed another deeper issue. The leaders of the Indian national struggle did not accept the two-nation theory. And yet, partition on religious had taken place.
- The US hegemony has been symbolised as the global village and other countries as its neighbours.
- If the headman of global village becomes intolerable, neighbours do not have any choice of leaving it, but develop a resistant.
- Though there are some rules and norms called laws of war that restrict but do not prohibit war.
- No single power can challenge the US militarily.
Still, to overcome the US hegemony, the following strategies have been found out:
- Bandwagon strategy emphasises not to oppose hegemonic power, instead take advantage of opportunities that hegemon creates i.e. increased trade and technology transfer and investments to extract benefits by operating within hegemonic system.
- To hide strategy implies to stay as far removed from the dominant power as possible as China, Russia and the European Union. This strategy is applicable to small states but states may not be able to hide for substantial length of time.
- Non-state actors as writers, artists and intellectuals have no boundaries to work with. They can reach beyond the limits of the states to mould the minds of people through their expressions.
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