CBSE Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers Popular Struggles and Movements Pdf free download are part of Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science SST Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements.
Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Extra Questions Civics Chapter 5
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Answers should not exceed 30 words.
When was the movement for democracy in Nepal conducted ? What was its aim ?
- The movement for democracy in Nepal was conducted in April 2006.
- Its aim was to restore democracy.
What was the position of the King after democracy was established in 1990 ?
Although the King formally remained the head of the state, the real power was exercised by the popularly elected representatives.
Who were Maoists ?
- Maoists are those communists who believe in the ideology of Mao, the leader of the Chinese revolution.
- They seek to overthrow the government through an armed revolution so as to establish the rule of the peasants and workers.
What was SPA in Nepal ?
SPA was Seven Party Alliance of all the major political parties in the parliament of Nepal.
Where is Bolivia situated ? What was the cause of movement in that country ?
- Bolivia is a poor country in Latin America.
- The cause of the movement was that under the pressure of the World Bank, the government sold the rights of water supply for the city of Cochabamba to a multi-national – company which increased the rates of water by four times.
What was FEDECOR ?
The FEDECOR was an organisation comprising of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists.
What was the outcome of the struggle of people in Bolivia ?
The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates.
What do the movements in Nepal and Bolivia tell us ?
- The movements in Nepal and Bolivia tell us that they are many indirect ways in which people can get governments to listen to their demands or their point of view.
- This is done by the organisations called interest groups or pressure groups.
Mention some of the peoples’ movement where collective action has been taken in India. ,
- Narmada BachaoAndolan.
- Movement for Right to Information.
- Anti-liquor Movement.
- Women’s Movement.
- Environmental Movement.
Differentiate between sectional interest groups and public interest groups. State one difference.
Sectional interest groups promote the interests of a particular section or group of society e.g., professional body of lawyers, doctors. Public interest groups promote collective rather than selective good. Their aim is to help groups other than own members e.g., BAMCEF (Backward and Minorities Community Employees Federation).
How specific movements are different from generic (general) movements ? [CBSE 2016]
Issue specific movements seek to achieve a single objective with in a limited time frame e.g., Narmada Bachao Andolan. General or generic movements seek to achieve a broad goal in the very long term e.g., Women’s Movement or Environmental Movement.
What are pressure groups ?
Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies.
Mention any two features of a movement.
- Loose organisation.
- More informal and flexible decision making process.
How do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics ? State any two ways.
- They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals by carrying out information campaigns, organising meetings and file petitions.
- They often organise strikes to put pressure on the government.
How are most of the trade unions and students’ unions are established or affiliated in India ?
Most of the trade unions and students’ organisations in India are either established or affiliated to one or other political party e.g., ABVP (BJP), NSUI (Congress).
Some parties grow out of movements. Give one example.
When the Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad.
How do sectional interest groups play a valuable role in democracy ?
Sectional interest groups play a valuable role. For example, where different groups function actively, no one single group can achieve dominance over society. This leads to a balance of power and accommodation of conflicting interests.
QUESTIONS OF 3/5 MARKS
Answers should be in about 80/100 words.
Describe in brief the movement for democracy in Nepal.
(a) Causes for popular movement in April 2006 : Democracy was established in Nepal in 1990. King Birendra formally remained head of the state, but real power was exercised by the elected representatives. It was a transition from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy. However, after the massacre of the royal family in 2001, the new King Gyanendra was not ready to accept the democratic rule. In February 2005, the King dismissed the then Prime Minister and dissolved the popularly elected Parliament and assumed all powers.
(b) Aim of the movement : The movement was started in April 2006 to regain popular control over the government from the king.
(c) Participants in the movement:
- All major political parties in the parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance,
- Maoist insurgents.
- Various other organisations such as labour unions and their federations,
- Teachers, lawyers and human rights group extended their support.
(d) Demands of the protesters : The demands were Restoration of Parliament, power to an all-party government and a new constituent assembly.
(e) Events : The main events of the movement for democracy in Nepal were as given below :
- 1990 – Restoration of democracy, King as head of the state but real power with popular government.
- 2001 – Killing of King Birendra. New King Gyanendra and non acceptance of democratic
- February 2005 – Dismissal of Prime Minister and dissolution of Parliament.
- April 2006 – Movement starts to regain popular control over government from the King.
- Seven Party Alliance – Strike, indefinite strike, Defiance of curfew.
- 21 April 2006 – Number of protesters 3 to 4 lakhs, ultimatum.
- 24 April 2006 – Last day of ultimatum and acceptance of demands.
(A) Girija Prasad Koirala – New Prime Minsiter of interim government.
(B) Restoration of Parliament.
(O King nominal head.
(D) New Constituent Assembly.
(E) Results :
- Victory of the movement and the people.
- An inspiration for democrats all over the world.
- Victory of the movement and the people.
- An inspiration for democrats all over the world.
Describe the popular struggle of Bolivia. [CBSE 2016]
Who led the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia ? Describe the ways of protest adopted by that organisation. [CBSE 2016]
(A) Who led the protest ?
- The protest against water privatisation in Bolivia was led by an organisation FEDECOR.
- It was comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists,
- Federation of farmers, the confederation of factory workers’ unions, middle class students and city’s growing population of homeless street children supported the movement.
Causes : Bolivia is a poor Latin American country. Under the pressure of the World Bank, the Bolivian government sold the rights of mupicipal water supply for the city of Cochabamba to a multi-national company. The company increased the rates of water by four times leading to more expenditure by the people. The monthly water bill increased upto ? 1,000 whereas the average income was around ? 5,000. This led to a spontaneous protest.
Activities : In January 2000, an alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders organised a successful four-day strike. The government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off. However, nothing happened and the agitation was started again in February, 2000. During agitation police adopted a policy of brutal repression. Martial law was imposed but ultimately people were successful in their struggle.
Results and importance :
- The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at the old rates,
- This struggle is known as Bolivia’s water war.
- t shows that people’s struggle and determination can force the government to change their policy in their interests and that struggles are an integral part of the working of democracy.
“The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.” Support the statement. [CBSE 2015]
The struggle of the Nepali people became a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world due to the reasons as mentioned below :
- It emphasises the role of people in making of democracy.
- It shows that disputes or issues can be resolved through struggles with mass mobilisation as had happened in Nepal where people’s struggle was successful and democracy was restored.
- It also shows that political conflict leads to popular struggle and mass participation by the people.
- It emphasises that in a democracy there are conflicts between those who are in power and those who aspire for power. Such moments come when there is transition to democracy, expansion of democracy and deepening of democracy. Such conflicts are resolved by the people’s participation as has happened in Nepal.
Describe the differences and similarities between popular movement in Nepal and struggle in Bolivia.
(1) Differences :
- The movement in Nepal was for the restoration of democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia was against the policy of the elected democratic government.
- The movement in Nepal was about the foundations of the country’s politics. King Gyanendra had become powerful and popularly elected Parliament had been dissolved. Protesters’ aim was to restore democracy.
On the other hand, the popular movement in Bolivia was against the selling of water supply rights for the city of Cochabamba to a multi-national company against the interests of the people. This struggle was against a specific policy of the government.
- Both the struggles were successful but their impact was at different levels. In Nepal, democracy was restored at the national level. It is known as Nepal’s second movement for democracy. On the other hand, in Bolivia, it was regarding Cochabamba city where the water supply was restored to the municipality at the old rates.
(2) Similarities : The similarities between the two are as given below :
- These are instances of political conflict that led to popular struggles.
- Both the struggles got popular mass support. .
- Both the struggles were successful. ,
- Both involved critical role of political organisations.
What do we learn from the strategies in Nepal and Bolivia ?
We learn from the struggles in Nepal and Bolivia many lessons as mentioned below :
1. Democracy evolves through struggles. Some decisions may be taken through consensus without any conflict. But if there is no consensus, there may be conflict between those who are in power and those who aspire for a share in power. Such moments come when country is going through transition to democracy, expansion of democracy or deepening of democracy.
2. Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation : These struggles show that role of the people in resolving a deep dispute where the democratic institutions like the parliament or the judiciary are involved, is significant. In such cases, the resolution has to come from outside, from the people. This has happened in Bolivia as well as in Nepal. There was mass mobilisation against the decision of the government in both the countries.
3. Conflicts and mobilisations are based on new political organisations : There is spontaneous public participation which can become effective only through organised politics. The agencies for organised politics are political parties, pressure groups and movement groups. For example in Nepal, these groups were SPA, Nepalese Communist Party, major labour unions and organisation of indigenous people, teachers, lawyers and human rights groups.
Which organisations did take part in struggle of Nepal to make it successful ?
In Nepal, the organisations that took part in struggle for restoration of democracy and was successful were as mentioned below :
- Seven Party Alliance (SPA) that included some big parties that had some members in the Parliament.
- Nepalese Communist Party (Maoist) which did not believe in democracy. This party was involved in an armed struggle against the Nepali government. It had established its control over large parts of Nepal.
- All the major labour unions and their federations joined the movement.
- The organisation of the indigenous people, teachers, lawyers and human rights groups extended support to the movement.
Who were the participants in Bolivia’s struggle for water ?
- The protest against water privatisation in Bolivia was not led by any political party.
- It was led by an organisation called FEDECOR.
- FEDECOR comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists.
- A federation of farmers who relied on irrigation, the confederation of factory workers’ unions, middle class students from the University of Cochabamba and the city’s growing population of homeless street children too participated.
- The movement was supported by the Socialist Party which came to power in 2006 in Bolivia.
From the examples of Nepal and Bolivia what conclusions can be drawn about the ways of participation by people and the organisations ? Explain.
From the examples of Nepal and Bolivia it can be concluded that the various organisations play their role in two ways as mentioned below :
- Direct ways : Organisations may influence the decision by direct participation in competitive politics. Political parties contest elections and form government.
- Indirect ways : Most of the people do not take part in politics due to one reason or the other. However people can influence the decisions of the government by forming organisations. Such organisations may promote their view point as well as interest. These are called interest groups.
Differentiate between a movement and an interest group.
The difference between a movement and an interest group is as given below :
(1) Movement has a loose organisation.
(2) The decision making of the movements is more informal and flexible. They depend much more on spontaneous mass participation.
(3) The example of movement are Narmada Bachao Andolan. Movement for Right to Information, Anti-Liquor Movement etc.
(4) The movement does not take direct part in politics.
(1) Interest groups have an organisation duly elected by its members.
(2) The decision making process is formal. The decisions are taken as per their rules and procedure.
(3) Lawyers body/association, Teachers association etc. are examples of interest groups.
(4) Interest groups too do not take part in politics directly.
Differentiate between sectional interest groups and public interest groups. Ans. Distinction between sectional interest groups and public interest groups :
|Sectional interest groups||Public interest groups|
|(1) These interest groups promote the interests of a particular section or group of society.||(1) These interest groups promote collective rather than selective good. Their aim is to help groups other than own members.|
|(2) Trade unions, business associations and professional bodies (lawyers, doctors) are interest groups.||(2) BAMCEF (Backward and Minorities Community Employees Federation) is an example.|
|(3) These groups represent a section of society i.e., workers, employees, business-persons, industrialists, followers of a religion, caste group. Their object is betterment and well-being of their members only.||(3) Their concern is betterment and well being of society in general. Bolivian organisation FEDECOR is an example.|
Is the influence of pressure groups and movements healthy or useful ?
- Generally, it appears that the influence of the pressure groups is not healthy or useful because these groups promote the interest of their members or a section of the society. In a democracy, the government should look after the interest of all the people and not one section.
- These groups influence the government policy without any responsibility towards the people. The political parties fight elections and are answerable to the people but these groups are not accountable to the people.
- Pressure groups may, sometimes, influence the policy to such an extent that only a small people get benefit from such policy at the cost of the majority.
- On the other hand, it may be stated that if everyone gets an opportunity to put pressure on the government, it is useful because the government gets different view points on a problem which are useful for taking a balanced decision accommodating conflicting interests.
- Different pressures help in maintaining a balance between powerful groups and needs of ordinary citizens.Thus, on the whole influence of pressure groups is useful in a democracy.
How are issue specific movements different from generic (general) – movements ? [CBSE 2016]
The difference between issue specific movements and generic (general) movements are given below :
|Issue Specific Movements||Generic (General) Movements|
(1)These movements seek to achieve a single objective.
(2)The duration of such movement is comparatively short.
(3) The examples are the movement in Nepal for democracy. Its aim was only the restoration of democracy. Narmada Bachao Andolan is another example.
(4) Such movement has clear leadership and organisation e.g., SPA in Nepal.
(1) Generic movements have more than one issue before them.
(2) The duration is generally not short. Those movements may continue for a long time.
(3) Environmental movements and women’s movements deal with different aspects.
(4) A large number of organisations control or guide such movements e.g., environmental movement consists of a large number of organisations with different independent leadership and often different views on policy related matters.
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