In this page, we are providing Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions and Answers Science Chapter 1 pdf download. NCERT Extra Questions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management with Answers will help to score more marks in your CBSE Board Exams.
Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Crop Production and Management
Extra Questions for Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management with Answers Solutions
Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is the name of the undesirable plants that grow among the crops?
Name one weed.
Name the methods applied for weeding.
- Manual method
- Chemical method
- Biological method
Name the chemicals that are used to remove weeds.
Name a tool which is used for removing weeds and for loosening soil.
What is the process of loosening and turning of the soil called?
Tilling or ploughing
What are the substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients called?
Manure and fertilisers
What is the process of supplying water to crops at different intervals is called?
What are the sources of irrigation?
Wells, tubewells, ponds, lakes, etc.
What is the process of separation of grain from chaff called?
Name two crops belonging to rabi crop.
Name the ideal months for the harvesting of rabi crops.
Name two kharif crops.
Name the ideal months for sowing kharif crops.
Name any two fertilisers.
NPK, Diammonium phosphate
Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What is a crop?
Crop is the term used to describe a plant that is grown in a field on a large scale. For example, cereal crops, wheat crops.
What do you mean by produce?
The products obtained from the crops are called produce.
What do you mean by the term agricultural practice?
Agricultural practices are those practices which involve the necessary steps to be taken during production of crops.
Explain the term levelling.
Levelling is the process of breaking down the larger lumps of soil, and then levelling them by using a leveller.
What are the advantages of levelling?
Following are the advantages of levelling:
- Levelling helps to prevent soil erosion caused by wind or air.
- It helps in sowing the seeds uniformly, and thus helps the plants to grow uniformly too.
- It helps in proper irrigation by allowing the water to get distributed uniformly throughout the soil.
What is a plough?
A plough is an equipment for ploughing. It is mainly made of a wooden shaft called a plough-shaft, attached to a triangular iron blade called ploughshare.
What is a cultivator?
Cultivator is a farm implement used for stirring and pulverizing the soil for planting crops.
Explain the term transplantation.
Some of the crops are first grown in the nurseries and then transferred to the main field. This process is known as transplantation.
What are the advantages of manure?
Following are some advantages of manure:
- It enhances water-holding capacity of soil.
- It improves soil quality.
- It promotes the growth of soil friendly microbes.
- It is renewable, biodegradable and eco-friendly.
What are weedicides? Give some examples.
Weedicides are the chemicals that are used to remove weeds. Some commonly used weedicides are 2, 4-D and metachlor.
Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Long Answer Type
What do you mean by the term crop? Explain briefly the types of crops.
Crop is the term used to describe a plant that is grown in a field on a large scale. For example, cereal crops, pulses and fruit crops. The crops grown in India can be classified as kharif and rabi.
Kharif crops are sown in the rainy season by June/July and are harvested by September/October. Thus they are also known as summer season crops. For example, rice, maize, etc.
Rabi crops are sown in the winter season in October or November and are harvested by March/April. Thus, they are also called winter season crops. For example, mustard, wheat, potato, etc.
What is ploughing or tilling? State its advantages.
The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is done by using a plough. Ploughs are made of wood or iron. Following are the advantages of ploughing or tilling:
- Ploughing loosens the soil and makes it aerated.
- It helps in mixing organic matter with the soil uniformly.
- It initiates the growth of natural agents and microorganisms and thus, keeps the soil fertile.
- It increases the water holding capacity of soil.
- It helps in easy penetration of root into the soil.
Define the term agricultural practices and also state the important steps taken during crop production.
Agricultural practices are those practices which involves the necessary steps to be taken during production of crops. There are number of steps of crop production which are to be done very carefully to ensure that crops get produced timely. Some of the most important steps taken during crop production are as under:
- Soil preparation
- Adding manure and fertilisers
- Threshing and winnowing
- Storage of grains
What is irrigation? Name the two main methods of irrigation and define them briefly.
The artificial method of watering the plants for assisting in the growth of the plants is called irrigation. The two main methods of irrigation are:
(i) Traditional method: The traditional method of irrigation is very less expensive and they often lead to wastage of water. Traditional method of irrigation involves chain pump, dhekli, moat (the pulley system) and rahat (lever system).
(ii) Modern method: Modern methods of irrigation are more inclined towards the use of diesel, bio¬gas, solar energy and electricity for lifting water.
The two most important modern system of irrigation are:
- Sprinkler irrigation system
- Drip irrigation system
What do you mean by weeding? Why the process of weeding necessary? Name the methods applied for weeding.
The undesirable plants that grow among the crops are called weeds. The process of removing these weeds is known as weeding. Weeds compete with the crop plants for nutrients and space. They grow much rapidly than the crop plant. So weeding is necessary.
Methods applied for weeding are as follows:
(i) Manual method: Manual method of removing weeds is the most time consuming method. In this system weeds are controlled by hand pulling, digging, shallow tillage, etc., by using certain implements like khurpi, hoe, etc.
(ii) Chemical method: In this method chemicals called, weedicides are used to remove weeds. For example, metachlor and 2, 4-D.
(iii) Biological control method: This method is the most commonly used method of weed control. It involves the use of some specific insects that destroy the growth of some specific weeds. For example, leafy spurge, a weed, is controlled by using flea beetles.
Write short note on the terms:
(i) Storage: Storage of produce is an important task. If the crop grains are to be kept for longer time, they should be safe from moisture, insects, rats and microorganisms. Before storing, the grains are properly dried in the sun to reduce the moisture in them. This prevents the attack by insect pests, bacteria and fungi. Grains are stored by farmers in jute bags or metallic bins. However, large scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects.
(ii) Harvesting: After maturation of crop, harvesting is an important task. In harvesting, crops are pulled out or cut close to the ground. It usually takes 3 to 4 months for a cereal crop to mature. Harvesting in our country is either done manually by sickle or by machine called harvester.
Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions HOTS
Why the depth at which seeds are planted is important?
If the seed is planted too deep then it will not get enough sunlight to germinate. If the seed is planted too shallow then it will not get enough soil to support germination. The depth for sowing seed also depends upon the seed size.
Why sowing seeds with seed drill is better than broadcasting?
Seed drill sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths, whereas broadcasting of seeds scatter them non-uniformly on the ground surface which are susceptible to be picked up by birds.
How can nitrogen be replenished in soil naturally?
Through crop rotation with a leguminous crop the nitrogen can be replenished in soil naturally. The leguminous plants, like peas, beans, soybeans, peanuts, etc., have nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their root nodules. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria, viz., Rhizobium, fixes atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+) which is used by the plants.
Why is it advisable to wash fruits and vegetables before using them?
Fruits and vegetables may contain many pesticides, used during the crop production practices, on them along with other germs and dust.
What is biological control of pest? How is it beneficial?
Method of controlling pests including insects, mites, weeds, etc., with the help of other living organisms are known as biological control of pest. The controlling agents are very much particular of their host pest. For example, lady bugs controls aphids, mites, scale insects, etc., which harm the crops. A wasp eats up bollworms or other caterpillars on cotton plant.
Benefits of biocontrol agents are:
- Less costly
- Give protection to the crop throughout the crop period
- Harmless to human beings and beneficial to flora and fauna
Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Value Based (VBQs)
Rajan felt worried about the condition of water scarcity in his village during the cropping season. He went to Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare of his area to get the solution of this problem. There he came to know about effective method of irrigation and drought resistant varieties of crop. He requested the head of department of the ministry to arrange some workshop on this topic to educate the farmers in these methods.
(a) Name modern methods of irrigation that help us to use water economically.
(b) What is drought resistant varieties of crop?
(c) Can you name some crops that require less amount of water?
(d) What value of Raj is shown here?
(a) Drip irrigation system and sprinkler method.
(b) Crops that need very little amount of rainfall or irrigation to grow are called drought resistant varieties of crop.
(c) Sorghum, pearl millet, chickpea, groundnut, etc.
(d) Rajan is concerned, aware, sensitive and intelligent.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), a constituent extension centre of Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, organised a farmer’s workshop on organic farming in vegetable cultivation at Kalayarkoil to commemorate the World Soil Day.
(a) What is organic farming?
(b) What is the advantage of organic farming?
(c) What are the health benefits of organic farming?
(d) What values of KVK are shown here?
(a) Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green ma-nure, compost and biological pest control.
(b) Advantages of organic farming are:
- Do not use any harmful chemicals
- Crops have better taste and nutrition
- Cost effective
(c) Organic farming uses all the natural ways to provide nutrients and to get rid of the pests. So it reduces the harmful effects of pesticides and fertilisers on human beings.
(d) Krishi Vigyan Kendra shows concern about the growing use of pesticides, fertilisers, etc., and their adverse effect on human health. It is spreading awareness amongst farmers about eco-friendly ways of cultivating crops.