On this page, you will find NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 7 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes History Chapter 7 SST New Questions and Ideas will seemingly help them to revise the important concepts in less time.
New Questions and Ideas Class 7 Notes Social Science History Chapter 7
CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 7 Notes Understanding The Lesson
1. Siddhartha also known as Gautama was the founder of Buddhism. Later, he was called as Gautama Buddha. He was born about 2500 years ago. He belonged to a small gana known as the Sakya gana and he was a Kshatriya.
2. In this period, life was changing and kings in the mahajanapadas were growing more powerful.
3. They also wanted to try and find out the true meaning of life.
4. He left the comforts of home in search of knowledge. He wandered for several years. Finally, he decided to find his home in path to realization and meditated long under a Peepal tree at Bodh Gaya, Bihar, where he attained enlightenment.
5. After attaining the enlightenment, he was known as Buddha. After that, he went to Samath, near Varanasi, where he taught for the first time. He spent his life travelling on foot, going from place to place, teaching people, till he passed away at Kusinara.
6. Buddha taught in the language of the ordinary people that was in Prakrit, so that everybody could understand his message.
7. The Buddha teachings included:
- Life is full of suffering and unhappiness.
- The causes are our cravings and desires, which often cannot be fulfilled.
- Sometimes, even if we get what we want, we are not satisfied and want even more or other things. The Buddha described this as thirst or ‘tanha’.
- He taught that this constant craving could be removed by following moderation in everything.
- He taught people to be kind and to respect the lives of others including animals.
- The results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
8. The rules made for the Buddhist sangha were written down in a book called the Vinaya Pitaka’. There were separate branches for men and women. All men could join the sangha. However, children, slaves, employees of king, debtors and women needed permission of their parents, masters, kings, creditors and from husbands respectively.
9. Men and women went to cities and villages to beg for food during fixed hours, due to this they were known as ‘bhikkhus’ and ‘bhikkhunis’ (beggar).
10. Around the time that the Buddha was preaching and perhaps a little earlier, other thinkers also tried to find answers to difficult questions. They wanted to know about life after death, why sacrifices should be performed, whether something is permanent event after death. They described this was the atman or the individual soul and the brahman or the universal soul. They believed that both the atman and the brahman were one. These ideas were recorded in the Upanishads. These were part of the later Vedic texts.
11. Upanishad literally means ‘approaching and sitting near’. Texts contain conversations between teachers and students.
12. Most Upanishadic thinkers were men, especially Brahmins and rajas.
13. Gargi is mentioned as a woman thinker who was famous for learning and participated in debates held in royal courts.
14. Poor people rarely took part in these discussions.
15. Around the time, about 2500 years ago, the last and 24th tirthankara of the Jainas, Vardhamana Mahavira also spread his message. He was a Kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis a group that was part of the Vajji sangha. At the age of thirty, he left home and went to live in a forest. For 12 years he led a hard and lonely life, at the end of which he attained enlightenment. He taught simple doctrine in Prakrit which was a language used by the people. His thoughts are:
16. Men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their home.
17. They must follow rules of ahimsa very strictly, which means not hurting or killing living beings. All beings, long to live. To all things, life is dear.
18. Followers of Mahavira are known as Jainas.
19. Followers lead very simple lives, begging for food. They had to be absolutely honest and never steal. They also observed celibacy and had to give up everything, including their clothes.
20. Male followers who left the home were called monks and women as nuns.
21. Jainism spread to different parts of north India and to Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
22. The teaching of Mahavira was transmitted orally for several centuries. Teachings were written down at place Valabhi in Gujarat about 1500 years ago.
23. Both Mahavira and Buddha felt that only those who left their homes could gain true knowledge. They arranged for them to stay together in the ‘sangha’, an association of those who left their homes.
24. Both Jaina and Buddhist monks went from place to place throughout the year for teaching the people. Only in the rainy session they stayed at one place. Earlier, his followers built temporary shelter for them, later permanent shelters were constructed which were known as ‘viharas’ i.e. monasteries. These ‘viharas’ were made of wood and then of brick.
25. In western India, caves were dugout. Very often vihara was built on the land donated by a rich merchant or a landowner or the king. The local people came with gifts of food, clothing and medicines for the monks and nuns.
New Questions and Ideas Class 7 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Tanha: Thirst or desire for more things.
Prakrit: Prakrit was an ancient language.
Upanishad: Upanishad was composed by Brahmins. These were written after the Rigveda.
Atman: It means individual soul which remains permanent even after death.
Jaina: The word Jaina comes from the term Jina which means conqueror. The follower of Mahavira is called Jaina.
Sangha: Sangha means association. Both Buddha and Mahavira favoured to join sangha for getting true knowledge.
Bhikkhu: Beggar is known as Bhikkhu in Prakrit. Those who joined the sangha went cities and villages for begging the food.
Vihara: Permanent shelters of bhikkus were called Viharas.
Monastery: Permanent shelters for monks and nuns of Jainism and Buddhism.
Ashrama: Ashrama is way of living which was described in the Vedas. Four Ashrama stages have been described i.e. Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Samnyas.
Notes of History Class 6 Chapter 7 Time Period
About 2500 years ago: Upanishadic thinkers, the Jaina teacher Mahavira and the Buddha.
About 1500 years ago: Writing down of the Jaina texts.