NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep ?

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep ? are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep ?.

Board CBSE
Textbook NCERT
Class Class 10
Subject English Main Course Book
Chapter Unit 1 Chapter 1
Chapter Name Do Indians Get Enough Sleep ?
Category NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep ?

TEXTUAL EXERCISES

Question 1.
Now that you have read a substantial part of the feature article, work with your partner and jot down at least five reasons that, according to you, are mainly responsible for Indians today not getting the desired quota of sleep each night. Share your views with other pairs of students in your class.
Answer:
Five reasons responsible for Indians today not getting the desired quota of sleep each night are :

  1. worries due to fast pace of life
  2. relating to living problems
  3. to and fro travel from home and office
  4. trying to catch up with time
  5. worries about studies, career, peer competition
  6. absence of proper and balanced food
  7. gap between what mind thinks and what actually is available
  8. ambitions without proper props
  9. parents discrimination

Note : Students to add a few more from their side and share their views with the other pairs of students.

Question 2.
On the basis of your reading of the article, answer the following questions :

(a) The direct result of lack of sleep is _____.
(b) Why is it important for physicians to ‘wake up’ to sleep disorders ? How will it help ?
(c) What do you understand by sleep deficit ? Why does the amount of sleep required to rejuvenate people vary from one person to another ?
(d) Why does the writer refer to the ‘early to bed …’principle ?

Answer:

(a) sleep disorders/many ailments.

(b) It is important for physicians to ‘wake up’ to sleep disorders because sleep disorders are behind many ailments. If sleep history is considered in evaluating a patient, it will help greatly in diagnosing the ailments.

(c) By ‘sleep deficit’ I mean the sleep that should have been there but was not had due to various reasons. The amount of sleep required to rejuvenate people varies from person to person. It is so because the physiological aspects and living conditions are different from one to another.

(d) The writer refers to the ‘early to bed …’ principle because it is just the best for a healthy person. However, it may not be possible today.

Question 3.
Now, write a letter to your school going younger brother or sister who is sleep deprived. Advise him or her to make life style changes to his/her daily schedule in order to get the desired hours of sleep daily.
Work in pairs and follow the CODER (Collect, Organize, Draft, Edit, Review) steps recommended for writing.

Language Tips :
(a) Remember to use the imperative form of sentences mostly.
E.g. “Drink a lot of water and take at least a fifteen minute stroll after dinner on a regular basis.”

(b) For the sake of introducing variety into your writing, use other forms of sentences making statements or asking questions, but consider the possibility of using modals like “should”, “must”, “may”, “might”, etc or using words or expressions that we usually employ when we advise others.
E.g. “You are recommended / advised to ……………… ”
“You ought to…”
“You must not forget to…”
“It is important to…”

Answer:

98-Sector 14A
Rohini, New Delhi
15 September, 20 – –

My dear Anil

I hope everything at your end is fine. I have learnt that you have started being sleep deprived due to various reasons. It is really very sad to know. There may be some valid reasons. However, I am sure if you change your life style, you can remain healthy.

First of all, I would say that sleep deprivation may be called the mother of all diseases. Leaving the reasons behind it aside you must think more of changing your daily routine. For instance, you must go to bed and rise at fixed times. Eat a balanced diet. Avoid junk food, avoid eating street food. Take plenty of water. Dwell more on eating your homemade food. Play for some time in between doing your homework. Don’t view television for I longer hours. Avoid sitting before the computer for hours together and in one posture. Snatch a few minutes in between, if you have to use it, and stretch your body. Avoid the effect of any peer competition. Stop giving a long rope to unrealistic goals.

I am sure if you pursue your goal with a strict regularity you’ll enjoy a sound sleep. You’ll also succeed in your goals.

Yours sincerely
_________________

Question 4.
(a) Phrasal verbs are “multi-word verbs”. These verbs consist of a basic verb + another word or words. The other word (s) can be prepositions and/or adverbs that modify or change their meaning. For example ‘give up’ is a phrasal verb that means ‘stop doing’ something, which is very different from ‘give’. In the article that you have just read there are a few phrasal verbs like :

  • pull off : Manage to do something difficult or tricky/to steer or turn a vehicle off the road
  • roll down : roll down (something) or roll (something) down : to move (something) down especially by turning handle
  • head for : to go or cause to go (towards)
  • woke up : arose from sleep/realized

Now look through the unit of Health and Medicine, figure out the phrasal verbs that you come across and list them.

Answer:

Some more phrasal verbs from the Unit are given below :
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep 1

(b) Find words from the article which mean the saine as the following :
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep 2

Answer:

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep 3

Question 5.
Read the concluding part of the article on whether we get enough sleep these days.

Concluding Part of the Article

SUMMARY

Sleep is very important for one’s health. Without it we can invite health problems, like heart disease, diabetes, obesity and depression.

Stanley Coren, noted professor of psychology and author of‘Sleep Thieves’, says that not sleeping enough can affect one’s immune system. He says that the immune system works best when one is sleeping. Then natural killer cells are generated. These are produced in the bone marrow and found in the blood and lymph fluid. They are the part of the body’s defence mechanism against viruses etc, even cancer.

In a study conducted in Turkey it was found that after 24 hours of sleep deprivation these natural killer cells declined by 37%. In another study in the U.S.A. this percentage was 72%. This activity returns to normal when we begin to get proper sleep. But sleep deprivation does more damage to our immune system.

Dr. Michael Sole, a Canadian cardiologist, says that there is a higher rate of heart failure among people with sleep disorders and sleep disturbances. He emphasises that C-reactive protein is tjie evidence that indicates the heart disease risk.

Researches in various universities all over the world have discovered that sleep loss can reduce the body’s ability to regulate hormones etc. In a study at the University of Chicago sleep from eight hours a night was reduced to four hours. They noted changes in bodies. Sleep disturbances disturbed glucose in tolerance and insulin resistance causing heart diseases. Dietician Ramona Josephson notes that insufficient sleep may effect three hormones contributing to obesity. Increased hormones resulting from sleep loss make us eat more.

Sleep is important in keeping waistline trim. It also ensures a balanced brain activity. During sleep brain neurotransmitters get replenished. In the absence of sleep these brain chemicals become depleted. This leads to emotional disturbances like depression, anxiety, sadness, anger and irritation.

Question 6.
Find the words from the final part of the above article that you have just finished reading which mean the same as the words or group of words given below.

(a) Vital, very important (para 1): (i) _________

(b) the quality of being prone to or open (ii) _________
to dangers, like a disease or infection or a weakness (para 1):

(c) a wide range (para 1) : (iii) _________

(d) very badly in a damaging way (iv) _________
(para 4):

(e) a problem that has persisted for (v) _________
quite some time (para 5):

Answer:

(i) crucial
(ii) susceptibility
(iii) array
(iv) adversely
(v) chronic

Question 7.
Choose the appropriate options to complete the sentences below.

1. Lack of sleep

(a) decreases laziness.
(b) weakens the body’s capacity to combat diseases.
(c) helps youngsters do well in their examinations.
(d) prevents a person from gaining weight.

2. Natural killer cells

(a) make a person look old pretty quickly.
(b) are produced in large numbers when we stay awake.
(c) help us fight viruses and bacteria.
(d) work well even for sleep-deprived people.

3. C-reactive protein

(a) when produced more in the body causes heart failure.
(b) prevents us from having a good night’s sleep.
(c) helps us to sleep peacefully.
(d) assists in destroying natural killer cells.

4. If we don’t sleep well,

(a) we may lose our appetite.
(b) we may become very thin.
(c) our brain may stop functioning in a balanced manner.
(d) production of brain chemicals increases.

Answer:

  1. (b) weakens the body’s capacity to combat diseases.
  2. (c) help us fight viruses and bacteria.
  3. (a) when produced more in the body causes heart failure.
  4. (c) our brain may stop functioning in a balanced manner.

Question 8.
Lack of sleep has a direct effect on the production of three hormones and brain neurotransmitters, which in turn has a bearing on our health. Complete the table below to show the above.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep 4
Answer:

(i) appetite-suppressing (hormone) (weakness)
(ii) in obesity/suppressing appetite
(iii) hunger pangs
(iv) increase in hunger pangs
(v) stress (hormone)
(vi) increase in fat storage
(vii) get depleted,
(viii) sadness, anger and irritation, depression etc

Question 9.
You have read about sleep deprivation and the ill effects it has on human beings. There are other work areas where youngsters remain sleep deprived and fall a pray to ill health. Listen carefully to some of the comments made about the business process outsourcing (BPO) sector which is part of the IT-enabled industry and do the activity. [Page 239 and 240 of Main Course Book]
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep 5

WORD-NOTES
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep 6
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep 7

While you listen, complete the following statements by choosing the right option :

1. According to the speaker, call centre work is insensitive because :

(i) the people cannot go to the toilets and need to concentrate very hard
(ii) the people are expected to attend to all the calls that come through to them
(iii) it requires unflagging concentration throughout the day with minimum breaks for meals or visits to the toilet
(iv) the people are expected to work on the computer all day long

2. People working at call centres are not allowed to leave their desks because :

(i) the managers do not want them to waste time smoking
(ii) they have to attend the calls which come in one after the other
(iii) they have to work at their computers all day long
(iv) they are paid very well

3. The targets that have to be met by the call centre employees have been called unrealistic because :

(i) they have to attend to too many calls in one day
(ii) they have to attend to double the calls than call centre workers in other countries
(iii) it is not humanly possible to attend all the calls that come through to them
(iv) the employees fall sick after working at these places

4. Closed circuit cameras have been installed in these offices to monitor

(i) whether the workers are smoking
(ii) whether the workers are resting at their desks
(iii) whether the workers are attending their calls without wasting a minute
(iv) whether the workers are visiting the toilets too often

5. The statistics about the health problems suffered by these people are

(i) 13%-headaches, 3%-eye fatigue, 23% indigestion and constipation
(ii) 3%-headaches, 13%-eye fatigue, 23% indigestion and constipation
(iii) 23%-headaches, 3%-eye fatigue, 13% indigestion and constipation
(iv) 13%-headaches, 13%-eye fatigue, 23% indigestion and constipation

6. That most people are not happy with their jobs in a call centre can be inferred from the fact that:

(i) they are under constant surveillance
(ii) they have to speak incessantly on the telephone
(iii) they have to stare at the computer screen all day long
(iv) they do not stay in the job for more than three years

Answers:

  1. (iii) it requires unflagging concentration throughout the day with minimum breaks for meals or visits to the toilet
  2. (ii) they have to attend the calls which come in ‘one after the other
  3. (ii) they have to attend to double the calls than call centre workers in other countries
  4. (iii) whether the workers are attending their calls without wasting a minute
  5. (ii) 3%-headaches, 13%-eye fatigue, 23% indigestion and constipation
  6. (iv) they do not stay in the job for more than three years

Question 10.
You have listened to the woes of working in a call centre. There are a number of other jobs which involve health hazards. However, modern advancements and developments in various therapies have improved our living conditions. Given below are different view points. In groups of four, discuss and add to these views :
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Main Course Book Unit 1 Health and Medicine Chapter 1 Do Indians Get Enough Sleep 8

Answer:

Meant for classroom activity. A sample of discussion is given below :

A : I personally feel that today the pace of life has become very fast. There is a lot of stress and pressure in everybody’s life …………

B : I agree with A. I see that a student has to cope up with lot of homework, peer competition, meeting parents’ ambitions etc. Don’t you see how students spend a day ? They have become the beasts of burden due to the stress of studies.

A : Then see the adults ! Do you see cheerfulness and joy on their faces ? Never ! They are always under stress and tension. This takes even small moments of joy from their lives. Worries of life have simply made them mad ………..

C : I am sorry, I don’t agree with you. They may be stressed but it is their own doing. I think that today men are more comfortable than their ancestors. See the advancement in every field of human activity. However, means of travel, medical facilities, health awareness, availability of medicines, new therapies etc, have increased life expectancy.

D : I agree with C. People today are more aware about their health. In the past we didn’t have yoga classes in parks etc. Now people are health conscious and do yoga and other physical exercises and eat a balanced diet.

E : Besides this, laughter therapies are there. We see adults laughing and clapping. These therapies have been found really beneficial for today’s stress and tension. Even absence of stress, you know, helps in keeping good health.

C : I feel that today human beings are comfortably placed in life than their ancestors. This all is because of scientific and technological advancement in almost every branch of life. Then education has brought a kind of revolution. Old treatises of medicines have been translated. Ayurvedic, Homeopathic and Unani medicines have rendered a great service to human health.

D : I see that there is no point in being pessimistic. We must live life full and with a positive outlook. We must sleep well, eat well and laugh and laugh. Of course, we mustn’t shun our work as work is worship…

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