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Challenges to Democracy Class 10 Extra Questions and Answers Civics Chapter 8
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Answers should not exceed 30 words.
What is a challenge ?
A challenge is a difficulty that carries within it an opportunity for progress. Once we overcome a challenge we go up to a higher level than before.
How many countries of the world are not under democratic government or have no democracy even today ?
At least one-fourth of the world countries are not under democratic governments.
What are different types of challenges that are being faced today ?
- Foundational challenge.
- Challenge for expansion.
- Challenge of deepening of democracy.
What is a foundational challenge ? State one example.
Foundational challenge is related to making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government. This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regimes, keeping military away from controlling government.
What is the challenge of deepening of democracy ? Give examples.
The challenge of deepening of democracy involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy e.g., institutions that help people’s participation and control, to bring down the control and influence of the rich.
What is the kind of challenge in Saudi Arabia where women are not allowed to take part in public activities ?
Challenge of expansion.
What are the ways and means for political reforms in India ? Mention any two.
- To think of legal ways of reforming politics.
- To strengthen political practice.
QUESTION OF 3/5 MARKS
Answers should be in about 801100 words.
What is the challenge of expansion ? Give example.
- The challenge of expansion involves applying the basic principles of democratic government across all regions, different social groups and-various institutions,
- Examples are greater power to local governments and representation to women and minorities, extension of federal principles to all the units of the federation.
- This also means less arid less decisions should remain outside the arena of democratic control,
- Most of the countries including India and democracies like the US face this challenge.
“The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by every democracy in one form or another.” Support the statement with suitable examples. [CBSE 2016]
- The challenge of deepening of democracy involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy.
- This challenge is being faced by every democracy in one form or the other.
- This should happen in such a way that people can realise their expectations of democracy. But ordinary people have different expectations from democracy in different societies.
- This challenge takes different meanings and paths in different parts of the world.
- In general terms, it usually means strengthening those institutions that help people’s participation and control.
- This requires an attempt to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decision. For example in Saudi Arabia, women should be allowed to take part in public activities. There should be freedom of religion for minorities.
What do you understand by ‘democracy reform’ or ‘political reform’ ? Why a list of desirable reforms cannot be prepared ? Describe broad guidelines for devising ways and means for political reforms in India ?
(a) Generally all suggestions or proposals about overcoming various challenges to democracy are called ‘democracy reform’ or ‘political reform’.
(b) The list of desirable political reforms cannot be prepared because all the countries do not have the same challenges. Thus only broad guidelines can be devised.
(c) The broad guidelines that can be devised for political reforms in India are as given below :
(1) Legal ways :
- Law has important role to play in political reform. But legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy.
- Democratic reforms are to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.
- Care should be taken in making laws because some laws may result in denial of political opportunity to the people. For example the law banning people who have more than two children from contesting panchayat elections has such effect. A large number of poor people and women could not seek election.
- The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms. For example the Right to Information Act empowers the people to find out what is happening in government. It acts as a watch dog of democracy. Such laws help to control corruption and supplements the existing laws that banned corruption and imposed strict penalties.
(2) Reforms through political practice : Reforms should be made through political practice e., by increasing and improving the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens.
(3) Reforms keeping in mind their implementation : At the time of proposals for reform it should be kept in mind that how it will be implemented. We cannot expect that the legislature will pass an act that goes against the interests of all the political parties and MPs/MLAs. Thus the measures that rely on democratic movements, citizens’ organisations and media are likely to succeed.
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